Table of Contents:
Division I: William Blake
Division II: Blake’s Circle
Barry, JamesButts, ElizabethFlaxman, JohnFuseli, HenryHayley, WilliamPalmer, SamuelParker, JamesStedman, John GabrielStothard, ThomasTatham, Frederick
Blake Publications and Discoveries in 2011
For me, one of the most important discoveries of 2011 was Google Scholar,
which allows searches in scholarly periodicals and books. Under “Blake”
for 2009–11 there were 48,400 entries in early November 2011, which
effectively frightened me off. But I did plough through 5,950 entries
under “William Blake” for 2009–11, or rather I tried to do so, but
(somewhat to my relief) I was only allowed to see the first thousand.
The information is often not comprehensive, omitting pagination and
sometimes even author (in which case I have had to ignore it). Entries
in other scripts such as Arabic and Chinese and Greek and Hebrew and
Japanese and Korean may be incompletely metamorphosed into English or
any other European language or script, and the titles may be translated,
but they are never transliterated.
But Google Scholar does provide wonderfully broad coverage, and a very substantial number of entries here derive from it.
An online resource which is new to me is Newspaper Archive, which advertises 120,000,000 articles and is indeed very capacious and rewarding.
The two workhorses of Blake scholarship,
Robert N. Essick, “Blake in the Marketplace,” which is customarily
meticulous and deft, and G. E. Bentley, Jr., “William Blake and His
Circle,” are occasionally capable of a caracole: the sketch of The Olympic Devils, implausibly attributed to Blake, “attracted 17 bidders, 16 of whom were fortunate.”Robert N. Essick, “Blake in the Marketplace, 2010,” Blake 44.4 (spring 2011): 125.
There was a scattering of new references to Blake in works
published before Gilchrist opened the floodgates in 1863. These were in
1798 (see Young in Part III), 1800 (Hayley, Essay on Sculpture, in Part III; Tilloch in Part VI), 1801 (Hartley in Part III), 1818 (Anon., “Forged Bank-Notes,” in Part VI), 1843 (“The Chimney Sweeper” in Part IB), 1845 (Saunders in Part VI), 1846 (1846 in Part IV), 1847, 1848, 1853 (Lester in Part VI), 1853 (John Duke Coleridge in Part VI), 1856 (Arvine and Stephens in Part VI), 1857 (Symington in Part VI), 1860 (1860 in Part IB) and 1861 (Gilchrist
in Part VI). Perhaps the most interesting are those of 1800 and 1818
about Blake’s connection with Tilloch’s attempt to suppress forgery of
bank notes and the newly recorded advertisements of 1798 for Young’s Night Thoughts.
Numbers of Works about Blake Recorded in Blake Books (1977), Blake Books Supplement (1995), and Blake/An Illustrated Quarterly for 1992-2011
| Record for
|| Books [a]
| Editions and
The non-English languages recorded for Blake studies in 2011 were Arabic, Chinese, Croatian,I
am told that when Yugoslavia divided into Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Kosovo (Albanian), Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia,
each country declared that it had its own language, and some are
mutually understandable with ease. French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Montenegrin, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, and Spanish.Unlike
in past years, there was no Blake publication recorded in Danish,
Greek, Macedonian, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, Slovenian, or Swedish.
Note that the sudden surge of Chinese publications about Blake (Wei
Lian Bu Lai Ke) does not mean that in 2011 there were suddenly more
publications in Chinese than previously. It means that suddenly I have
discovered how to find them. Most of the essays in Chinese are
remarkably brief; twenty-six of them are only one or two pages. It is
worth bearing in mind two factors about this brevity. In the first
place, Chinese writing, in which one character represents a whole word,
is far more concise than alphabetical writing, in which, for example,
“alphabetical” requires twelve characters. In Chinese, a 5,000-word
essay would require only three pages. And in the second place,
candidates for the MA (a three-year degree) must publish two articles to
qualify for the degree, though the quality of the essay and journal may
be very modest.
More than one entry is in Arabic, which I cannot read.E.g., author illegible to me, “[Utopia or Labyrinth of Reason? William Blake’s Polemic with Francis Bacon],” about the New Atlantis and The Book of Urizen.
Doctoral dissertations noticed in 2011 are from Coimbra (2009),
Exeter (2010), Harvard (2010), Indiana (2011), Michigan (2011), City
University of New York (2010), Yale (2011), and York (England) (2010).
Web Sites on Blake
Web sites are a problem. New ones pop up (many), and old ones die
(not many). Some sites never change, and some change frequently. In
2011 web sites devoted exclusively or significantly to Blake included:
a catalogue of the works related to Blake and his circle given in 2005
to the library of Victoria University in the University of Toronto, and
subsequent additions thereto.
Blake Digital Text Project, created by Nelson Hilton, with an electronic version of The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, ed. David V. Erdman, the Concordance of Erdman et al., a “graphical hypertext” of Blake’s Songs, and a hypertext edition of “The Everlasting Gospel” by David Owen, plus bibliographical material.
The Blake Society (London), for lectures, a journal, and Blake advocacy.
Blake 2.0, a “community portal” devoted to Blake studies, ed. Jason Whittaker and Roger Whitson, with a blog (Zoamorphosis), podcasts, and a digital reading project.
The Cynic Sang, “the (un)official blog of the William Blake Archive,” by members of the University of Rochester archive team.
The Friends of William Blake, by Luis and Carol Garrido, with information about Blake’s burial site.
An Island in the Moon, with video, photos, and a text of the 1983 Cornell theatrical production of Joseph Viscomi, with music by Margaret LaFrance.
Project Blake, on Blake community events in London.
The William Blake Archive,
ed. Morris Eaves, Robert N. Essick, and Joseph Viscomi, with searchable
electronic editions of Blake’s literary and artistic works,
bibliographies, collection lists, and an electronic version of The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, ed. David V. Erdman.
Two prints from Songs of Innocence and of Experience (o) have been newly recorded in the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the first known loose print (pl. 15) from For Children: The Gates of Paradise was offered for sale. How extraordinary that new copies of Blake prints should still turn up.
Untraced letters from Blake and to him have been newly identified
below. Alas, the possibility of actually finding any of these letters
is extraordinarily slight.
Printings of single poems by Blake in 1843 and 1860 are newly recorded here.
By far the most exciting newly recorded copy of a literary work by Blake is Poetical Sketches
(Y). It had not been recorded at all until it was offered for sale in
2011 and acquired by Robert N. Essick. It bears manuscript corrections
by Blake like those in other copies distributed by or for him, and they
are identical to those in copy S sent by John Flaxman to William Hayley
in April 1784. The recipient was apparently John Hawkins, Blake’s early
admirer—the handwriting on the title page is his. He seems to have
acquired his copy very soon after the book was printed in 1783, for the
address he wrote on it (“at Mr Taylors Green St. Leicester
fields”) was one where Blake lived only in 1782-84. Hawkins commissioned
drawings from Blake, but this is the only Blake work he is known to
have owned. This copy of Poetical Sketches helps to illuminate the most obscure period of Blake’s creative life.
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, edited with an
introduction and commentary by Michael Phillips (2011), is an important
edition, generously illustrated with 169 reproductions, including
colored prints of copies B, K, and M. These reproductions make it
particularly valuable. They are accompanied by a long, detailed, and
careful study of the Marriage, generously supported by useful
information in the notes. The study often seems to be designed to
correct, not very effectively in my view, the arguments about dates of
composition, etching, and printing in Joseph Viscomi, Blake and the Idea of the Book (1993).
There are ambitious if uncertainly successful essays here on the costs of Hayley’s Designs to a Series of Ballads (1802) and the hypothetical costs of colored copies of Young’s Night Thoughts (1797).
Catalogues and Bibliographies
The most remarkable new catalogues were John Windle’s gorgeous Omnium Gatherum (2011) and Pictorial Blake (2011), the latter in particular with an impressive number of single prints from Blake’s commercial book engravings.
Criticism, Biography, and Scholarship
The most prolific performer in 2011 has been Paul Miner, who
published twenty essays in the year, mostly about allusions in Blake’s
works. His first publication on Blake of which I have record was
fifty-four years ago, in 1958, and between then and 2010 he published at
least twenty-six more essays on Blake. This prodigious fecundity is the
more remarkable because he has not had the leisure and resources of an
academic, and his hometown of Ponca City, Oklahoma, is not known for its
One of the most remarkable Blake publications of 2011 was the special issue of the University of Toronto Quarterly (fall 2011), edited by Karen Mulhallen. This was phase five of the William Blake Project. The previous phases were (1) Blake in Our Time: Essays in Honour of G. E. Bentley Jr,
edited by Mulhallen (2010); (2) the symposium Blake in Our Time: A
Symposium Celebrating the Future of Blake Studies and the Legacy of G.
E. Bentley Jr (2010), orchestrated by Mulhallen; (3) the symposium
exhibition (2010); and (4) the catalogue of it called Remember Me!
Blake in Our Time: A Keepsake Book in Celebration of an Exhibition and
Symposium on the Life and Art of William Blake (1757-1827) (2010). This is a very impressive panoply of scholarship and a wonderful credit to Mulhallen.
Some of the best and most durable work today is being done on
Blake’s biographical context. An example of this is Dennis M. Read, R. H. Cromek, Engraver, Editor, and Entrepreneur
(2011). The factual part of the book, derived largely from six of his
previously published essays, provides a sympathetic and reliable
portrait of Cromek as a traveling salesman. Read’s benevolent
conclusions as to Cromek’s amiability and reliability are a good deal
more generous than those of most students of Blake will be, even after
they have read and admired the book.
Angus Whitehead, “‘I write in South Molton Street, what I both see and hear’: Reconstructing William and Catherine Blake’s Residence and Studio at 17 South Molton Street, Oxford Street,” British Art Journal
(2010), is original, richly detailed, and valuable. His “‘humble but
respectable’: Recovering the Neighbourhood Surrounding William and
Catherine Blake’s Last Residence, No. 3 Fountain Court, Strand, c.
1820-27,” University of Toronto Quarterly (2011), has copious
information about Blake’s neighbors, particularly about periods of
residence in Fountain Court, professions, and ages, whilst his
extraordinarily detailed essay “‘an excellent saleswoman’: The Last
Years of Catherine Blake,” Blake (2011-12), provides crucial new evidence on where Catherine lived and when, and about Frederick Tatham and his young wife.
Mary Lynn Johnson, “‘Catalogue of Some of Blake’s Pictures at “The
Salterns”’: Captain Butts as Exhibitor, Litigator, and Co-Heir (with
His Sister Blanche),” University of Toronto Quarterly (2011), provides a great deal of information about the Blake heritage of the Butts family about 1850-1905.
Minute portions of Blake’s career as an engraver are dealt with
in several new works. Wayne C. Ripley, “‘In Great Forwardness’?: 1798
Advertisements for Volume Two of William Blake’s Night Thoughts,” Notes and Queries
(2011), gives valuable new details about Blake’s most ambitious
engraving commission. Mark Crosby, “Blake and the Banknote Crises of
1797, 1800, and 1818,” University of Toronto Quarterly (2011),
is concerned with the context of Blake’s support of Alexander Tilloch’s
effort to produce forgery-proof bank notes. G. E. Bentley, Jr., “Remember Me! Customs and Costumes of Blake’s Gift Book,” University of Toronto Quarterly (2011), deals with the variety of binding decorations in Remember Me! and suggests a reason for the modesty of its sales.
A considerable addition to the record in English of works on
Blake in Japan is provided by the admirable and apparently exhaustive
essay by Hikari Sato, “Meiji Taisho kino William Blake Shoshi Gakusha
tachi—Yanagi Muneyoshi, Jugaku Bunsho, Sangu Makoto: William Blake
Bibliographers in Japan in the 1910s and the 1920s—YANAGI Muneyoshi,
JUGAKU Bunsho, and SANGU Makoto,” Choiki Bunka Kagaku Kiyo: Interdisciplinary Cultural Studies (2011).
Christopher Rowland, Blake and the Bible (2011), is a careful and learned account of Blake in a theological context.
Susanne M. Sklar, Blake’s Jerusalem as Visionary Theatre: Entering the Divine Body
(2011), argues that “Blake’s tantalizing words become comprehensible
when they are heard” (147). The thesis is argued in a different context
in her “‘In the Mouth of a True Orator’ (Jerusalem’s Operating Instructions),” University of Toronto Quarterly (2011).
* * * * * * * * *
The annual checklist of scholarship and discoveries concerning
William Blake and his circle records publications and discoveries for
the current year (say, 2011) and those for previous years which are not
recorded in Blake Books, Blake Books Supplement, and “William Blake and His Circle.” Installments of “William Blake and His Circle” are continuations of Blake Books and Blake Books Supplement, with similar principles and conventions.
I have made no systematic attempt to record audio books and
magazines, blogs, broadcasts on radio and television, calendars,
CD-ROMs, chinaware, coffee mugs, comic books, computer printouts
(unpublished), conferences, electronic editions of works by Blake,For example, William Blake: The Complete Works, which seems to include merely a biography (he was born at “28A Broad Street”) and 180 reproductions in color.
e-mails, festivals and lecture series, furniture, jewelry, lectures on
audiocassettes, lipstick, manuscripts, microforms, mosaics, movies,
murals, music, notebooks (blank), novels merely tangentially about Blake,For instance, §Severin Rossetti, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (Kindle edition, 2010). pageants, performances, pillows, playing cards, podcasts, poems about Blake,Such as §Eleanor Cooke, “Mr. Blake and the Baglady,” The Return (London: Salt, 2010).
portraits, postcards, posters and pictures, recorded readings and
singings, refrigerator magnets, stained-glass windows, stamps (postage
and rubber), stickers, sweatshirts, T-shirts, tattoos, tiles,
typescripts (unpublished), video recordings, and web sites.
I take Blake Books and Blake Books Supplement, faute de mieux, to be the standard bibliographical books on Blake,Except for the states of the prints for Blake’s commercial book engravings, where the standard authority is Robert N. Essick, William Blake’s Commercial Book Illustrations
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991). Significant further details,
especially about collations, are given in Roger R. Easson and Essick, William Blake Book Illustrator: A Bibliography and Catalogue of the Commercial Engravings,
vol. 1: Plates Designed and Engraved by Blake (Normal: American Blake
Foundation, 1972); vol. 2: Plates Designed or Engraved by Blake
1774-1796 (Memphis: American Blake Foundation, 1979); vol. 3 never
appeared. The standard authority for Blake prints issued separately is
Essick, The Separate Plates of William Blake: A Catalogue (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983). and have noted significant differences from them.
The organization of Division I of the checklist is as in Blake Books.
In Part VI: Criticism, Biography, and Scholarly Studies, collections of
essays on Blake are listed under the names of the editors, and issues
of periodicals devoted extensively to him are listed under the titles.
Reviews, listed here under the book reviewed, are only for works which
are chiefly about Blake, not for those with only, say, a chapter on
Blake. Note that Blake Books and Blake Books Supplement normally do not include reviews.
Division II: Blake’s Circle is organized by individual (say,
William Hayley or John Flaxman), with works by and about Blake’s friends
and patrons, living individuals with whom he had significant direct and
demonstrable contact. It does not include important contemporaries with
whom Blake’s contact was negligible or nonexistent, such as John
Constable and William Wordsworth and Edmund Burke. There is nothing in Blake Books and Blake Books Supplement corresponding to Division II.
Research for this checklist was carried out particularly in the
libraries of the University of Toronto and Victoria University in the
University of Toronto, as well as with the electronic resources of Copac, Google Books, Google Scholar, and WorldCat. Works published in Japan were found in CiNii (National Institute of Informatics Scholarly and Academic Information Navigator), the National Diet Library online catalogue,
Komaba Library and the General Library of the University of Tokyo, and
the National Diet Library. For publications in China, works were found
in the National Library of China
(Beijing) and the databases of Complete Texts for Periodicals in China,
VIP Chinese Periodicals in Science and Technology, and Wan Fang Data
(digitized periodicals). These Chinese online databases are very
difficult of access.
I should be most grateful to anyone who can help me to better
information about the unseen (§) items reported here, and I undertake to
thank them prettily in person and in print.
I am grateful for many kinds of favors to Ashgate Publishing, Tanja Bakić (for works in Montenegrin and Croatian),Her volumes of poetry, *Bolesna ruža [The Sick Rose] (Podgorica: Nova knjiga, 2009) and Svilene cipelice [Silken Shoes] (Podgorica: Nova knjiga, 2011), are inspired by Blake.
Sarah Bentley, Professor Robert Brandeis, Professor Robert N. Essick
(especially for an early sight of his “Blake in the Marketplace, 2011”),
Stephen Ferguson (Princeton curator of rare books), Harvard University
Press, Sarah Jones (for extraordinarily meticulous copyediting),
Professor Alan Kahan, John Koster, Shelley Langdale (curator at the
Philadelphia Museum of Art, for information about Songs [o]
pls. 28, 52), Stephen Massil, Dr. Jeff Mertz, Paul Miner (for many
offprints), Professor Morton Paley, Mary Silverstein, Tom Simpson (rare
book cataloguer, E. J. Pratt Library, Victoria University in the
University of Toronto, for bringing many publications about Blake to my
attention), University of Iowa Press, Joseph Viscomi (especially for
telling me of the newly recorded prints from Songs [o]), John Windle, Professor Duncan Wu, and Yale University Press.
||Works prefixed by
an asterisk include one or more illustrations by Blake or depicting him.
If there are more than 19 illustrations, the number is specified. If
the illustrations include all those for a work by Blake, say Thel or his illustrations to L’Allegro, the work is identified.
|§ ||Works preceded by a section mark are reported on second-hand authority.
||G. E. Bentley, Jr., Blake Books (1977)
||G. E. Bentley, Jr., Blake Books Supplement (1995)
||Blake/An Illustrated Quarterly
||G. E. Bentley, Jr., Blake Records, 2nd ed. (2004)
||Martin Butlin, The Paintings and Drawings of William Blake (1981)
||International Standard Book Number
ProQuest Dissertations and Theses largely replaces DAI for North American PhDs
Division I: William Blake
Part I: Blake’s Writings
Section A: Original Editions, Facsimiles, Reprints, and Translations
Table of Stabholes
Poetical Sketches (Y)
Descriptive Catalogue (F) (BB p. 138)
Table of Collections
|Essick, Robert N.
Type-Printed Work: Poetical Sketches (Y)
|Larkhall Fine Art
Illuminated Work: For Children pl. 15
|philadelphia museum of art
Illuminated Work: Songs (o) pls. 28, 52
Table of Watermarks
Hayley, Designs to a Series of Ballads (1802)“1802” is also the watermark in the paper for Blake’s List of Apostles and his letter of 14 Oct. 1807.
* * * * * * * * *
A drawing (c. 1793)Butlin #226, acquired in 2011 by Robert N. Essick (see illus. 1 in his “Blake in the Marketplace, 2011,” Blake 45.4 [spring 2012]: 111-12). has sketches related to America
pl. 2 (running woman [top right]), pl. 5 (man in chains [top middle],
running woman [bottom left]), pl. 6 (arm with clenched fist), and pl. 8
“Blake’s Chaucer: An Original Engraving” (1810)
Date: It was in circulation by 20 June 1810
when the publisher Robert Bowyer sent to Earl Spencer “a prospectus” of
an “Engraving in the line manner ... a very fine Etching” by Blake.BR(2) 300.
The Book of Thel (1789)
Copies D and G
They were reproduced in the William Blake Archive in 2011.
*The Book of Thel
, copy D. William Blake Archive
. Ed. Morris Eaves, Robert N. Essick, and Joseph Viscomi. 2011.
For Children: The Gates of Paradise (1793)
Newly Recorded Impression
Binding: Loose, inscribed “13” at the lower left, second state.
History: Offered privately by Larkhall Fine Art in Dec. 2011 to Robert N. Essick, the source of my information about it.
No other loose print from For Children is known, and no copy of For Children is missing a plate.
Blake repeatedly referred to money received or parcels
sent (e.g., with proofs or books), and these were probably accompanied
by letters, but they are not included here unless a letter is mentioned.
All are untraced; dates in italics indicate that the letter is written
1799 22? Aug. from Dr. John Trusler
Between 16 and 23 Aug. 1799, Dr. Trusler sent Blake
“a Letter full of Criticisms” of Blake’s art which is quoted and
paraphrased in Blake’s letters of 23 and 26 Aug.
1800 12 Sept. to William Hayley?
In his letter of 12 Sept. 1800, Blake asked Flaxman,
“Be so kind as to Read & then Seal the Inclosed & Send it on
its much beloved Mission.” Perhaps the intended recipient was Hayley.
1802 Jan. from Thomas Butts
In his letter to Butts of 10 Jan. 1802, Blake referred to and partly paraphrased “Your very kind & affectionate Letter.”
1802 Nov. from James Blake
Blake wrote on 22 Nov. 1802, “My Brother tells me ...,” presumably in a letter.
1802 22 Nov. to James Blake
In his letter to Butts of 22 Nov. 1802 Blake wrote,
“I have taken the liberty to trouble you with a letter to my Brother
which you will be so kind as to send or give him.”
1803 Jan. from James Blake
“Your Letter mentioning Mr Butts’s account of my Ague” is mentioned in Blake’s letter to his brother James of 30 Jan. 1803.
1803 late April from James Blake
In his letter to Butts of 25 April 1803, Blake referred to “a pressing Letter from my Brother.”
1803 late April from Thomas Butts
Blake referred in his letter to Butts of 25 April 1803 to “your kind & heartening Letter.”
1803 16 Aug. to James Blake
In his letter of 16 Aug. 1803, Blake asked Butts “to cause the Enclosd Letter to be deliverd to my Brother.”
1803 Dec. from William Hayley
“Your Letter has never arrived to me” (letter to Hayley, 13 Dec. 1803).
1804 Jan. to Samuel Rose
For “the Writing” on “your noble present to Mr Rose,” “I was fortunate in doing it myself & hit it off excellently” (letter to Hayley, 27 Jan. 1804).
1804 March from William Hayley
In his letter of 16 March 1804 Blake referred to “your kind Letter.”
1804 March to Prince Hoare
“I left it [your Elegant & Heart lifting Compliment] with a short note” to Hoare (Blake to Hayley, 16 March 1804).
1804 March from Prince Hoare
“I now send you his [Hoare’s] note to Me” (Blake to Hayley, 21 March 1804).
1804 March from William Hayley
“I did not recieve your Letter till Monday” (Blake to Hayley, 31 March 1804).
1804 2 April to Mr. Dally
“I write to him [Dally] by this post to inquire about it [the £15 he had sent about 19 March]” (Blake to Hayley, 2 April 1804).
1804 late May from William Hayley
Blake wrote to Hayley on 28 May 1804, “I thank you heartily for your kind offer of reading, &c.”
1804? from Joseph Johnson
“Mr. Johnson has, at times, written such letters to
me as would have called for the sceptre of Agamemnon rather than the
tongue of Ulysses” (Blake’s letter to Hayley of 28 May 1804). The dates
of Johnson’s letters could be any time from 1779 to May 1804.
1804 21? Oct. from William Hayley
“I received your kind letter” and “I write immediately” (Blake to Hayley, 23 Oct. 1804).
1804 late Oct.? from William Hayley
Blake thanked Hayley in his letter of 4 Dec. 1804
for “your kind proposal in your Last Letter,” apparently about Hayley’s
1805 June from Richard Phillips
Blake wrote in his letter to Hayley of 4 June 1805 that Phillips “sent to me the last sheet [of Hayley’s Ballads ) ... desiring that I would forward it to Mr. Seagrave. But I have inclosed it to you.”
1807 May to R. H. Cromek
Cromek’s letter to Blake of May 1807 referred to “your letter” and paraphrased it.
1818 June from Dawson Turner
In his letter to Dawson Turner of 9 June 1818, Blake
referred to “the different Works you have done me the honour to enquire
after” with “very Polite approbation of my works.”
1827 16 Jan. from John Linnell
In his letter of 27 Jan. 1827, Blake apologized to
Linnell for not having acknowledged the receipt of “your Letter” with
the “Five Pounds from you on 16 Jany 1827.”
1827 5 March from George Cumberland
In his diary for 5 March 1827, Cumberland noted that
he had “Sent ... Lett[er] to Blake,” and Blake paraphrased it in his
letter of 15 March 1827.
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (?1790)
*The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
. Edited with an introduction
and commentary by Michael Phillips. Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2011
[distributed in North America by University of Chicago Press]. 4o
ix, 193 pp. and 52 color reproductions of copies B, K, and M and of pl.
14 in copies A, C-I and pls. 15, 14, 12-13 in copy G, plus 117
miscellaneous reproductions; ISBN: 9781851243419.
“Acknowledgements” (vii-viii), “Introduction” (1-47)
and its notes (47-58), “Transcript” of text of copy B (59-86), color
reproductions, “Commentary”It includes the loose pulls of pls. 3-4 (Fitzwilliam) but not those of pls. 5-6, 11 (2 prints), 14 (2), 16, 20 in BB et seq. (87-154), “Checklist of Copies” (155-63), and “Bibliography” (164-73), but no index.
This is a long-announced, detailed, and careful study of the Marriage. Much of it aims, often silently and rather ineffectively, to correct Joseph Viscomi, Blake and the Idea of the Book (1993). The detailed arguments about dates of composition, etching, and printing are not persuasive.
I do not know the meaning of “revised edition” here. The work is apparently available only electronically.
“Pickering [Ballads] Manuscript” (?after 1807)
Paper: The Pickering Manuscript p. 16 has a printed catchword (“With”) from Hayley’s Designs to a Series of Ballads
(1802) p. 20 (E3v
p. 341n2>. Therefore the 22 pages of the Pickering Manuscript probably came from Designs ballad 1, pp. 5-10 (B2r-B4v) and ballad 2, pp. 11-26 (D1r-E4v).The paper in the Pickering Manuscript is uniform, but it is only an hypothesis that it all comes from Hayley’s Designs to a Series of Ballads and that the leaves are in the same order as in the Designs. The paper comes from the inner margins of conjugate unfolded sheets with the text cut away.
paper sometimes shows a watermark of “1802.”
Paper size: 12.5 x 18.4 cm. <BB
p. 342>. Since the leaves from Hayley’s Designs
are 23.5 x 29.4 cm., therefore 11 cm. were trimmed from each dimension of the Designs
leaves to make the Pickering Manuscript leaves. The outer margins were
trimmed to remove irrelevant printed text, but why were 11 cm. cut off
the tops or bottoms?
Binding: The leaves have stabholes in the inner margins 3.9 cm. from the top and 4.5, 4.6 cm. apart <BB
p. 342>. If they had been stabbed when they were part of Designs to a Series of Ballads
, one might expect to find two sets of stabholes, the first from when they were part of Hayley’s Designs
and the second from when they became part of the Pickering Manuscript. The absence of duplicate stabholes suggests that the Designs
leaves were loose when they were converted to the Pickering Manuscript.
The Pickering Manuscript
. William Blake Archive
. Ed. Morris Eaves, Robert N. Essick, and Joseph Viscomi. 2011.
Poetical Sketches (1783)
Collation: 8o in 4s (half-sheet imposition).Robert N. Essick, “Blake in the Marketplace, 2011,” Blake 45.4 (spring 2012): 115n5, properly corrects BB p. 343: “4o
(half sheet imposition).” The chain lines run vertically, as in an
octavo in half sheets, not horizontally, as in a quarto in half sheets.
Newly Recorded Copy
For the binding, history, manuscript additions on the
title page (by John Hawkins), and corrections to the text (by Blake),
the entry on Poetical Sketches and illus. 4 and 5 in Robert N. Essick, “Blake in the Marketplace, 2011,” Blake 45.4 (spring 2012): 115-19.
Facsimile Pages <see BB p. 345, Blake (2011)>
Note that the facsimile type of c. 1880 uses the
archaic “ſ” for “s” and ligatures for “ct,” “fl,” “ſh,” “ſi,” “ſk,”
“ſl,” “ſſ,” and “ſt,” as in the original.
. Decorations designed and cut on the wood by Charles Ricketts. 1899. <BB
§Sotheran’s “Private Press” catalogue (2011), lot 330, offers 1 of 8 copies printed on and bound in vellum.
Songs of Innocence (1789)
Binding: The watermark on the front flyleaf is “BEILBY | & |
KNOTTS | 1825”, a Birmingham firm, not “BEILK | & | KNOT | 1825” as
p. 404, as I am told by Stephen Massil.
History: The “C. Newman Born July 21st 1804,” as recorded on the
leather label, is Charles Newman, son of Joseph and Ann Newman, who was
born on 21 July and baptized at St. Martin-in-the-Fields on 12 Aug.
1804, and Charles R. Robson, who acquired Innocence
Leicester in or about the year 1899” and sold it at Sotheby’s, 15 Dec.
1926, is probably Charles Raynor Robson (1869-1947), schoolmaster of
Leicester and cricketer, as I am told by Stephen Massil.
History: Exhibited and reproduced in color in the Syracuse University exhibition and catalogue, 2003 (see 2003
in Part IV).
Songs of Innocence
. Decorated by Charles Robinson and Mary H. Robinson. . <BB
#156> B. §Mineola: Dover Publications, 2011. vii, 66 pp.; ISBN: 9780486476049.
Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794)
Museum of Art
||J WHA[TMAN] 18[ ]
||18.8 x 24.1
11.3 x 14.8
It was reproduced in the William Blake Archive in 2011.
Newly Recorded Prints
Copy o pls. 28 (frontispiece to Experience
) and 52 (“To Tirzah”)
History: Pls. 28 and 52, with notes about the Charles Eliot Norton collection, were acquired by Carl ZigrosserZigrosser
was director of the Weyhe Gallery until 1940, when he became curator of
prints at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Several of the prints in Songs (o) came from Weyhe.
and given by him in 1975 to the Philadelphia Museum of Art.They
were not in the catalogue when I inquired in 1962, 1977, and 1980. The
museum identification codes for pls. 28, 52 are 1975-226-19 [and 18].
Their rediscovery was made by Joseph Viscomi, who told me of them. Most
of my information comes from the generosity of Shelley Langdale of the
The traced prints of Songs (o) in 2011 are pls. 13, 20-21, 24, 28, 36, 38-39, 46, 49, 52-53.
*Canti dell’Innocenza e dell’Esperienza: Che mostrano i due contrari stati dell’anima umana
. Trans. Roberto Rossi Testa. 1997, 2001. <Blake
2007> C. Milan: Feltrinelli, 2009.
All the translations are by new young poets. The
reproductions are in color. Apparently it was published in conjunction
with the Pushkin Museum exhibition (see 2011 in Part IV).
The 2011 edition is said to be “revised.”
“Upcott’s Autograph Album” (16 Jan. 1826)
History: Listed under “British Artists” in Original Letters, Manuscripts, and State Papers. Collected by William Upcott, Islington
(Privately Printed, 1836) 46.
Works LostOmitting drawings, prints without text by Blake, and copperplates and woodcuts.
Blake wrote to Thomas Butts on 22 Sept. 1800, “My Sister will ... bring with her your account,” but no such account is known.
On 22 Nov. 1802 Blake wrote to Butts, “I have inclosed
the Account of Money recievd & work done,” but no such account is
Account book (1804)
Blake referred in his letter to William Hayley of 28 Dec. 1804 to “my account Book in which I have regularly written down Every Sum I have recievd from you,”Joseph Viscomi, Blake and the Idea of the Book (1993) 250, remarks: “Blake apparently kept no ledger detailing the cost of supplies.” but no such account book is now known.
Canterbury Pilgrims subscription (1806)
According to Gilchrist, Life of William Blake, “Pictor Ignotus” (1863) 1: 204, “a subscription paper for an engraving of the Canterbury Pilgrims had been circulated by Blake’s friends ... in 1806, two years before publication of The Grave
.” No other reference to this “subscription paper” is known. It
must have been compiled either by Blake or from his information. The
subscription paper cannot be “Blake’s Chaucer: The Canterbury Pilgrims”
(“May 15th 1809”) or “Blake’s Chaucer: An Original Engraving” (n.d., watermark 1810),Copies of each belonged to Gilchrist’s son. which silently quote from the Descriptive Catalogue
(1809). The date is important, for it seems to demonstrate that Blake’s
plan to engrave the Canterbury Pilgrims decisively preceded that of his
Ticket of admission to Blake’s exhibition of 1809-10
The only evidence for the existence of the ticket is
in the postscript to Blake’s letter of May 1809 to Ozias Humphry: “I
inclose a ticket of admission if you should honour my Exhibition with a
Section B: Collections and Selections
Blake’s Works Reprinted in Conventional Typography before 1863
(1844 [i.e., 1843])
“The Chimney Sweeper” (Innocence
) (see “The Chimney Sweeper,”
“Introduction to ‘Songs of Innocence,’” “The Lamb,” “The Divine Image,” “The Echoing Green,” “On Another’s Sorrow,” Poetry for School and Home, from the Best Authors
, ed. Thomas Shorter (London: T. J. Allman, 1860) 1-2, 26, 139, 170-71.
* * * * * * * * *
There are color reproductions, some of them enlarged, those of No Natural Religion from several copies and lacking pl. 1b, with German translations of All Religions are One and There is No Natural Religion.
A pretty 16mo; an advertisement at the end gives
the price as 38¢. Blake’s long lines are given as two lines each. On p.
88 is a vignette of a child playing a tambourine. Pamela Chandler Colman
published other Blake poems in Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine (1843), Little Keepsake for 1844 (Boston, 1843), The Child’s Gem for 1845 (Boston, 1844), Boys’ and Girls’ Library (1844) <BBS
pp. 147-48, 151-52, 157>—see Raymond H. Deck, Jr., “An American
Original: Mrs. Colman’s Illustrated Printings of Blake’s Poems,
1843-44,” Blake 11.1 (summer 1977): 4-18.
A selection from Blake’s poems with a chronology of his life.
For comments on Allingham’s version of “The Tyger,” see the entry in Robert N. Essick, “Blake in the Marketplace, 2011,” Blake 45.4 (spring 2012): 127.
Pullman, “Foreword” (5-7).
Michael Phillips, “Introduction” (3-8), followed by
“Checklist of Contents” [51 items] (9-15), in order “to record … the
Flying Horse Editions facsimile” (2009) (31). It is about the title
pages of Innocence and Experience (Songs pls.
3, 29), apparently designed to accompany “three discs [not included
here] that provide a photographic record of the contents” (9).
Blake is named only in the contents. In l. 10,
“Beneath the bosom of the sea,” Lawrence gives “bottom” for Blake’s
“bosom,” a variant I have not noticed elsewhere. The poem is not in
Malkin; it seems to have been first printed in conventional typography
by H. C. Robinson (1811) (BR 585). There were earlier editions of Cameos in 1831, 1833, and 1834, but I do not know whether they include “To the Muses.”
In 2011 the archive added 33 watercolor illustrations
to the Bible, preliminary drawings and illustrations for Thornton’s
edition of Virgil’s Pastorals, The Book of Thel (D, G), Songs (E), and the “Pickering Manuscript,” and republished with extra features 9 series of Blake’s Milton watercolors.
Part II: Reproductions of Drawings and Paintings
Section A: Illustrations of Individual Authors
In 2011, 33 illustrations to the Bible on New Testament subjects were reproduced in the William Blake Archive.
Blair, Robert, The Grave (1808)
*William Blake’s Watercolour Inventions in Illustration of
The Grave by Robert Blair
. Ed. Martin Butlin. 2009. <Blake
*Kelly Grovier, “Gambols in the Graveyard: William Blake’s ‘Watercolour Inventions,’” Times Literary Supplement
17 June 2011: 14-15 (“this lavish edition ought to reignite questions
about the proprietary nature of cultural treasures and whether private
interest should always be permitted to trump the public good”).
Virgil, Pastorals (1821)
In 2011, a selection of Blake’s preliminary drawings was reproduced in the William Blake Archive.
Young, Edward, Night Thoughts (1797)
*William Blake’s Designs for Edward Young’s Night Thoughts: A Complete Edition
. Ed. with commentary by John E. Grant et al. 1980. <BBS
Morton D. Paley, Studies in Romanticism
21.4 (winter 1982): 674-82.
Part III: Commercial EngravingsFrom 2010 I record pre-1863 references to separately issued prints by Blake.
Section A: Illustrations of Individual Authors
Allen, Charles, A New and Improved History of England (1797)
New Location: National Library of Ireland.
Allen, Charles, A New and Improved Roman History (1798)
New Location: Liverpool.
Bellamy’s Picturesque Magazine (1793)
Bellamy’s Picturesque Magazine
. Gale Ecco Print Editions, 2010. 90 pp.; ISBN: 9781170817551. A digitized version.
Illustrations of the Book of Job (1826, 1874)
For an illustration and description of John Linnell’s draft of the label for Job, now in the Essick collection, see illus. 6 in Robert N. Essick, “Blake in the Marketplace, 2011,” Blake 45.4 (spring 2012): 120-21. For the printed version, much altered, see BB p. 519.
All 22 prints are reproduced in John Windle, Pictorial Blake (see 2011 in Part IV).
Diamond Bible (1832-34, 1836-37, 1840) (see <Blake (2010)>)
B. Engraved title page: The lettering is the same as in the first version, but the date is altered from 1833 to 1834.
Typeset title page: Like the 1834 typeset title page except for the imprint:
LONDON: | ALLAN BELL & CO. AND SHEPHERD & SUTTON; | AND FRASER & CO. EDINBURGH. | MDCCCXXXVI .
1834-36 Location: Victoria University in the University of Toronto (with additional title pages for the Diamond New Testament
[engraved, n.d.; typeset, 1836], Diamond Book of Psalms
[London: Allan Bell & Co, and Simpkin & Marshall, 1834], and The Psalms of David
[engraved, 1836; typeset, 1834]).
Blair, Robert, The Grave (1808, 1813 …)
1808 New Locations: Brooklyn Museum, Wake Forest (gray stiff paper wrappers).
1813: All 13 prints are reproduced in John Windle, Pictorial Blake
in Part IV).
Monthly Literary Advertiser 10 Sept. 1807: 7.My references to Monthly Literary Advertiser and Bent’s Monthly Literary Advertiser come from Newspaper Archive, which is so heavily corrupted as to be illegible.Bent’s Monthly Literary Advertiser
10 July 1844: 9 (price reduced from 12s. 6d. to 11s.).Bent’s Monthly Literary Advertiser
11 Dec. 1844: 13.
Bonnycastle, John, An Introduction to Mensuration (1782, 1787, 1791, 1794)
1794 New Location: Colorado.
The Cabinet of the Arts (1799) (addenda to <Blake (2006, 2007)>)
Location: Princeton copy 1 [GAX 2006-3128N] with 112 prints (as in Blake
); copy 2 [Ex item 5987716] with 134 prints.It was offered in Alex Fotheringham, catalogue 78 (March 2011), lot 76 (£650).
Copy 2 does not have the “F: Revolution” plate, so it is present in only three of the eight known copies.
Size: Princeton copy 2 is 23 cm. high.
Paper: Princeton copies 1-2 are on laid and (mostly) wove paper, the latter with fragments of WHATMAN watermark.
Sources of the Prints: [Robert Riddell’s faux old Scottish ballad] The Bedesman on Nidsyde
(S. Hooper, 1790), Lady’s Pocket Magazine
4 (Harrison & Co., 1 Aug. 1795); to the booksellers who originally published the prints add S. Hooper.
Cumberland, George, Thoughts on Outline (1796)
New Locations: Barr Smith Library (Adelaide, Australia), British Library (2—BB
records 1), McGill, Monash, Wales (Lampeter), Westminster Libraries.
Fenning, D., and J. Collyer, A New System of Geography (1785-86, 1787)
1785-86 New Locations: Robert N. Essick, Tasmania (Morris Miller Library).
1787 New Location: Hennepin County Library (Minnetonka, Minnesota).
Pl. 1: The date of “June 6.th 1784
” in the British Library copy of 1785-86 was altered in the Essick and Tasmania copies of 1785-86 to “July 16.th
Pl. 2: The imprint date of “April 16.th 1787
” (as in the 1787 edition) is found in the Essick copy of 1785-86.
The British Library copy (1785-86) is reproduced in Eighteenth Century Collections Online.
Flaxman, John, Compositions from … Hesiod (1817, 1870)
For the designs “in Dec. 1970 in the possession of the dealer H. D. Lyon” <BB
p. 556>, substitute “were sold by Maggs in 2011 to an unidentified
collection,” according to Robert N. Essick, “Blake in the Marketplace,
2011,” Blake 45.4 (spring 2012): 130.
Flaxman, John, The Iliad of Homer (1805)
“The price I receive for engraving Flaxman’s  outlines of Homer [The Iliad (1805)] is five guineas each,” according to Blake’s letter of 4 May 1804.
Gay, John, Fables (1793)
New Location: Syracuse.
Hartley, David, Observations on Man (1791)
According to Herman Andrew Pistorius, Notes and Additions to Dr. Hartley’s Observations on Man … Translated from the German Original … MDCCLXXII , 3rd ed. (London: J. Johnson, 1801) <Bodleian>, “*** A Print of the author, engraved by Blake, in quarto, may be had of the publisher, price two shillings and six-pence” (iii).
Hayley, William, Ballads (1805)
Blake wrote to Hayley on 22 Jan. 1805 that, according to Phillips, the publisher of the Ballads,
“one thousand copies should be the first edition.” For each of the five
“highly finishd” plates, Blake said he was to have £21, according to
his letter of 25 March 1805.
Hayley, William, Designs to a Series of Ballads (1802)
The sketches on the verso of The Resurrection of the Dead,
c. 1780-85 (Butlin #79 [verso not recorded]), Essick collection (2011),
include the head of an eagle for ballad 2, “The Eagle,” and the man’s
leg for ballad 4, “The Dog.”
Designs Paper Used for Scrap
For “Pp. 19-20 &c. used for ‘The Ballads [Pickering] MS’ (Morgan)” <BB p. 574>, read “Pp. 5-26 (B2r-E4v) used for ‘The Pickering [Ballads] MS’ (Morgan)” (see “Pickering [Ballads] Manuscript” in Part IA).
Hayley’s Designs to a Series of Ballads were from the first a commercial undertaking. Hayley said that they were intended “for the Emolument of Mr Blake the artist,”Hayley’s autobiography, quoted in BR(2) 123. and he actively engaged his friends to become ballad mongers. The work was published at Blake’s expense and for his benefit.
Debits and Credits
The chief cash costs were for (1) copperplates for the
6 large and 8 small engravings, (2) paper for text (watermarked “1802”)
including separate printed blue covers and large prints, and (3) paper
and printing the 10¼ sheets of text and the covers by Joseph Seagrave in
Chichester (the Blakes printed the engravings in Felpham). There was no
cost for advertising (except in review copies), and no payment to the
author, the designer, the engraver, and the plate printers, except in
possible profit from sales. There was no profit.
The 14 copperplates must have weighed 2,464.6 g (5½ pounds) and cost £3.13.1½.G. E. Bentley, Jr., “Blake’s Heavy Metal: The History, Weight, Uses, Cost, and Makers of His Copper Plates,” University of Toronto Quarterly 76.2 (spring 2007): 740. The text consisted of 37 quarto leaves, with prints on pp. iv, 1, 9, 11, 26, 27, 39, 41:
|Preface (pp. i-iv)
|Ballad 1: The Elephant (pp. 1-10)
|Blue paper covers
|Ballad 2: The Eagle (pp. 11-26)
|Blue paper covers
|Ballad 3: The Lion (pp. 27-40)
|Blue paper covers
|Ballad 4: The Dog (pp. 41-52)
|Blue paper covers
In addition, there are 6 leaves (1½ quarto sheets)
with full-page prints for preliminaries (1 print) and ballad 1 (1),
ballad 2 (1), ballad 3 (1), and ballad 4 (2). Each complete set of the Designs, all four parts, used 43 leaves, 10¾ quarto sheets.
The text must have been printed by Seagrave in four
print runs, one in late May 1802 for the preliminaries and ballad 1, one
in late June for ballad 2, one in late July for ballad 3, and one in
early September for ballad 4. The engravings, however, were only printed
as they were called for.
For paper for the full-page prints in the Designs,
“Blake has ... [arranged] for his Ballads to deal with his own
stationer in London, & send it down as He thought proper,” according
to Hayley’s letter of 6 July 1802.
We do not know how many copies of the Designs
were printed or what Seagrave’s charges were for printing and paper,
but we may make educated estimates based on Blake’s statement in his
letter of 28 Dec. 1804 that he paid Seagrave “30 Pounds ... in part of his Account”Hayley wrote on 3 Apr. 1803 that Blake “has paid a Bill of 30£ for paper” [and printing] for the Designs. and on contemporary printing prices. On 10 Oct. 1800 Thomas Bensley estimated that the cost of paper, printing, and hot-pressing 1,000 quarto copies of Thomson’s Seasons (5 sheets each) for F. J. Du Roveray would be £15.15.0 per sheet (£78.15 in all).Quoted
from the manuscript in the Huntington Library; see G. E. Bentley, Jr.,
“F. J. Du Roveray, Illustrated-Book Publisher 1798-1806: The Amateur and
the Trade,” Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 12 (1988): 70. Perhaps Blake’s provincial printer Seagrave charged him £15 for paper and printing per thousand quarto sheets.
It is a mere informed guess that the print run for
ballad 1 was 250 copies and that this was continued for ballad 2 when
the sales for ballad 1 at first seemed promising. When the sales for
ballad 2 proved disastrous, Blake must have reduced his print order,
perhaps to 150 copies, for ballads 3-4. The expenses of printing and
paper might have been as follows:
|Cost of 250 copies of ballads 1-2
|Printing 1250 sheets (250 x 5 sheets) at £15 per 1,000 sheets [a]
|187.5 sheets for 250 copies of 3 full-page quarto prints (quarter sheets) at £5 per ream of 500 sheets
|Cost of 150 copies of ballads 3-4
|Printing 637.5 sheets (150 x 4¼ sheets) at £15 per 1,000 sheets
|112.5 sheets for 150 copies of 3 full-page quarto prints (quarter sheets) at £5 per ream of 500 sheets
Presumably Seagrave printed copies of each ballad in
Chichester and sent them to Blake in Felpham; Blake and his wife then
printed engravings on text plates plus the full-page plates as the need
arose, not all at once. Hayley wrote to Lady
Hesketh on 10 June 1802, “He & his excellent Wife (a true Helpmate!)
pass the plates thro’ a rolling press in their own cottage together;
& of course it is a work of some Time to collect a Number of
Impressions.”Hayley repeats this in his
letter to R. H. Evans on 3 April 1803: “He and his good industrious Wife
together take all the Impressions from the various Engravings in their
own domestic Press.”
When there proved to be demand for only a few score
copies, Blake was left with many copies of the printed text which were
of no commercial value. He cannily kept these
printed sheets, even taking them back to London with him in 1803, at
considerable trouble, and he made drawings on them for the rest of his
life, including designs for Blair’s Grave (1805), Malkin’s Memoirs (1806), Job and Dante (c. 1824).BB pp. 574-75 and BBS pp. 221-22 record 47 leaves from the Designs used as scrap paper (see also the “Pickering Manuscript” in Part IA), but none for finished engravings. (The “Riddle Manuscript” is on the verso of a proof-before-letters from the Designs.)
There are 9 leaves used as scrap from part 1, 24 from part 2, 8 from
part 3, and 6 from part 4, which might suggest that part 2 provided most
unvendible copies. A disproportionate number of scraps are on leaves
which would have had prints on them: pp. 9 (5), 11 (1), 26 (6), 27 (1),
41 (2). No print from the Designs is known to have been reused.
The first reports of sales were encouraging. On 29
June 1802 Hayley wrote that ballad 1 was “marching triumphantly on the
road of prosperity,” and as late as 30 Jan. 1803 Blake wrote to his
brother: “These Ballads are likely to be Profitable for we have Sold all
that we have had time to print. Evans the Bookseller in Pallmall says
they go off very well.”
However, Hayley told R. H. Evans on 3 April 1803: “He
has paid a Bill of 30£ for paper & the copies He has disposed of in
the country have not produced more than half that sum£15
would have paid for 120 individual ballads at 2s. 6d. each. However, we
know that Lady Hesketh paid £5.5.0 for 10 copies and Flaxman £1.17.6
for 4, leaving only £7.17.6 (£15 - £7.2.6) or 63 copies. to
reimburse Him.” The £30 for Seagrave was apparently partly advanced by
Hayley, for on 28 Dec. 1804 Blake thanked him for “the Twelve Guineas
which you Lent Me when I made up 30 Pounds to pay our Worthy Seagrave in
part of his Account.” Blake wrote on 26 Oct. 1803, “Mr. Evans ... gives
small hopes of our ballads; he says he has sold but fifteen numbers at
the most, and that going on would be a certain loss of almost all the
expenses,” and on 22 Jan. 1805 he wrote that the London bookseller
Phillips advised that “we must consider all that has been printed as
lost, and begin anew.”
The Designs to a Series of Ballads were
printed by J. Seagrave in Chichester and sold by him and P. Humphry and
R. H. Evans in London “for W. BLAKE, Felpham.” We do not know how many
copies Seagrave sold—perhaps he only provided the copy for the reviewer
in the Sussex Chronicle & Chichester Advertiser (2 June 1802), which he printed—but we have good information about how many were sold by Evans in London (15, worth £1.17.6)The
sales by Evans included ballads 1-3 for Anna Seward and 3-4 for Lady
Hesketh and some of her friends; Evans would have deducted his
commission. We have no information about sales by Humphry. and how many were disposed of by friends of Blake and Hayley (120, worth £15),We
can account for sales of 62 copies of ballad 1, 19 of ballad 2, 10 of
ballad 3, and 12 of ballad 4 = 103 in all. Only 53 numbers have been
traced today. mostly in the country.
The Known Distribution of the Designs
||Anon., reviewer for the Sussex Chronicle & Chichester Advertiser (2 June 1802): 172.
||Charlotte Collins, 9 copies (2 of which were to replace damaged copies), 1 of which went to Mr. Spilsbury (28 June 1802).
||John Flaxman’s 5 copies went to Mr. [John] Hawkins (2), Mr.
[William] Long, Mr. [Samuel] Rogers; Flaxman paid “for the whole of my
copy” [i.e., £1.17.6 for 15 numbers at 2s. 6d. each] (27 June 1802).
||Samuel Greatheed received 6, but sold none (Mr. Courteney was
sent a copy but it was “returned unpurchased”) (1 Sept. 1802); he
referred to them in his review of Hayley’s Ballads in the Eclectic Review (1 Dec. 1805).
||Harriet, Lady Hesketh, was sent “a Bundle of Ballads” from
Hayley, which she disposed of to 3 Bath libraries, Lord [William] and
Lady [Mary] Harcourt, Richard Hurd, Dr. Randolph (2 copies, 1 to show to
Lord Spencer), and “my Sistr [Theodora],” and she kept one; she paid £5.5.0 for them all (BR
129, 132, 135-36, 146), though by her own figures she only owed £1.5.0;
Lady Hesketh received from Blake “two packets of ballads” [5 in each]
(15 Oct. 1802).
||Johnny Johnson was sent 20 copies and disposed of “several” (6 June, 7 July 1802).
||E. G. Marsh (“I … hope to contribute my little assistance to the payment” (20 June 1802).
||Mrs. Throckmorton of Bath was sent it by Conder, bookseller of Bucklesbury, but we don’t know if she bought it (3 Sept. 1802).
||Anon., reviewer for the European Magazine (Aug. 1802): 125-26.
||Isaac Reed (BR 856n84), perhaps from Nancy Flaxman, who gave him Poetical Sketches (F) in 1784.
||Anon., reviewer for the Poetical Register (1803): 410 (BR 143fn).
||Offered in R. H. Evans’s catalogue (1804), lot 1001, no price (BR 143fn).
||William Hayley (BR 153).
||Anna Seward, from the booksellers (3 March 1803).
||Thomas Butts, for Mr. [John] Birch. In his letter to Butts of 25 April 1803, Blake says “I now send the 4 Numbers for Mr
Birch,” and in the 1806 account with Butts is also a record of 3
numbers to Mr. Birch (7s. 6d.). Blake also sent “some Ballads” with his
letter of 22 Nov. 1802, perhaps the “4 Nos of Hayleys Ballads” in his receipt of 3 March 1806 (BR 764).
||R. H. Evans, the book’s London publisher, sold 15 numbers “at the most” (Blake’s letter of 26 Oct. 1803). [a]
||William Hayley (BR 153).
||“James Parker,” copy in the Library of Congress.
||Charlotte Smith’s daughter, from Hayley. [b]
||Lady Hesketh received 5 (#3-4 were to come from her Bath bookseller), “as well as those I take in for my Sistr [Theodora] and some other friends,” sent Blake £5.5.0 (28 June, 15 Oct. 1802).
||Charlotte Collins was ready to take 7 (28 June 1802).
||Samuel Greatheed expected to receive copies (3 Sept. 1802).
||Johnny Johnson, some to be sent by Hayley (6 Aug. 1802).
||Mrs. Flaxman, 5 copies sent via James Blake (Blake’s letter of 30 Jan. 1803).
||James Blake, 5 copies, 2 of them for Mrs. [Penelope Carleton]
Chetwynd (Blake’s letter of 30 Jan. 1803) and apparently 3 to Butts (“3
Hayleys Ballads + Brother,” account with Butts of 3 March 1806).
||Friends took 22 copies. [c]
Blake’s probable expenses for the Designs
were therefore for paper and printing (£30.16.0), copper (£3.13.1½), and
advertising (15s. for 6 review copies), or £35.4.1½ in all, and his
probable receipts (£16.7.6) left him considerably out of pocket.
Hayley’s generous gesture had been a disaster for Blake, not only in
losing money but also in wasting his creative genius.
Hayley, William, An Essay on Sculpture (1800)
An announcement of its publication appeared in the Morning Post for 1 May 1800.See Mark Crosby, “Blake and the Banknote Crises of 1797, 1800, and 1818,” University of Toronto Quarterly 80.4 (2011): 829.
Hayley, William, The Life of George Romney (1809)
Blake asked £31.10.0 for “finishd” quarto plates and
£15.15.0 for the “less finishd,” according to his letter of 22 June
1804. He engraved two finished plates, but one was not used.
He referred to his engraving of the self-portrait of Romney in many letters (see BB
p. 577), but it was not published, and no copy has previously been
reported. However, a proof-before-letters of a quarto engraving of
Romney was offered by §Grosvenor Prints (London) in April 2011; Robert
N. Essick thinks it might be the one by Blake, and Mark Crosby will
publish an article about it in Blake.
Hayley, William, The Triumphs of Temper (1803)
“I am to have 10 Guineas each” for “a little work of Mr H’s,” Hayley’s Triumphs of Temper, according to Blake’s letter of 30 Jan. 1803.
Lavater, John Caspar, Aphorisms on Man (1788, 1789, 1794)
The fourth edition (Boston: I. Thomas & E. T.
Andrews, D. West, E. Larkin jun.; Worcester: I. Thomas, 1790)
<Victoria University in the University of Toronto> has an anon.
frontispiece which copies Blake’s frontispiece fairly carefully, not
Lavater, John Caspar, Essays on Physiognomy (1789-98, 1792, 1810)
The cover for part 5 (Essick collection), dated 1788, includes Blake’s first print: “7. aged figures, gardening.”
Monthly Magazine (1797)
Blake’s engraving of “The late M.rWright
of Derby” is probably “the Head I sent you as a Specimen” for which “I
had Twelve” guineas, according to his letter to John Trusler on 23 Aug.
Mora, Jose Joaquin de, Meditaciones Poeticas (1826)
“R. ACKERMANN, book and printseller, and superfine water-colour manufacturer to
HIS MAJESTY :It
says that Ackermann has just moved from 101 Strand to 96 Beaufort
Buildings , and this copy (with the stamp of Bibliothèque de la
Ville de Lyon) is bound with Edinburgh Review no. 91 (June 1827).
MEDITACIONES POETICAS, por J. J. de
, con estampas. 1l
“Literary Advertising List” It is bound with Foreign Review no. 1 (Jan. 1828).
<Taylorian>, described as in Ackermann’s 1827 list.A Catalogue of Spanish and Portuguese Books, on Sale by Vincent Salvá
[y Pérez], 124 Regent Street, London. Part 2. MDCCCXXIX , lot 3510, £1.11.6.
Remember Me! (1824, 1825) (see <Blake (2011)>)
1824 New Location: Northwestern.
The Northwestern copy, not recorded in Bentley, “Remember Me! Customs and Costumes of Blake’s Gift Book” (see University of Toronto Quarterly
in Part VI), is in “publisher’s printed boards with old rebacking in
red muslin, custom clamshell box” (according to §Bonhams auction, San
Francisco, 2011, lot 2048).
Salzmann, C. G., Elements of Morality (1791, 1792, 1793, 1799, 1805, ?1815)
To the entry in Blake
(2011) reporting Robert N. Essick’s suggestion about the involvement of
Blake’s apprentice, Thomas Owen, I would add that the alterations in
1792 and 1793 (described in Essick, William Blake’s Commercial Book Illustrations
[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991] 50-51), which are more like Blake’s
usual style of engraving, may be by the master correcting the work of
Some of the 1791 designs are competently engraved, reversed, by H. Weston in
ELEMENTS | OF | MORALITY, | FOR THE | USE OF CHILDREN; | WITH AN | INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS TO PARENTS. | = | Translated from the German of the | Rev. C.G. SALZMANN. | = | ILLUSTRATED WITH TWENTY COPPER-PLATES, | IN TWO VOLUMES | — | VOL. I.The
only copy I have seen, in Victoria University in the University of
Toronto, consists of vol. 1 only. In it pls. 3-4, 6-10 (at pp. 48, 72,
182, 188, 218, 226, 234) copy 1791 pls. 2, 6, 16, 18, 20, 22-23,
including the inscriptions. | = | PHILADELPHIA: | Printed by J. HOFF & H. KAMMERER, jun. | M,DCC,XCVI .BB p. 608 says of the edition of Philadelphia, 1796, “the plates are different.” Essick, William Blake’s Commercial Book Illustrations 51, says: “The 1796 Philadelphia edition contains twenty of the designs re-engraved by another hand.”
Salzmann, C. G., Gymnastics for Youth (1800)
New Locations: Amherst College, Birmingham, California (Los Angeles),
Cambridge, Indiana, Kansas, Leicester, McGill, Morgan Library, Oberlin
College, Paxton House (near Berwick-upon-Tweed), Pennsylvania,
Providence Public Library, Toronto Public Library, Washington (St.
Louis), Wellcome Institute, West Sussex Record Office.
Seally, John, and Israel Lyons, A Complete Geographical Dictionary (?1784)
?1784 New Location: Robert N. Essick (vol. 2 only, with all the Blake plates).
Stedman, John Gabriel, Narrative, of a Five Years’ Expedition … (1796, 1806, 1813)
1796 New Locations: Huntington (one of the two copies is colored),The colored Huntington copy is reproduced in the William Blake Archive.
Victoria University in the University of Toronto (very professionally colored).
Vetusta Monumenta, vol. 2 (?1789)
New Locations: Robert N. Essick, Society of Antiquaries.
Virgil, Pastorals (1821)
Larkhall Fine Art offered Robert N. Essick “21 impressions of BB #504.8 (Blake’s 4th wood engraving) [and] 14 impressions of BB
#504.13 (Blake’s 9th wood engraving)” with an envelope with a pencil
inscription by John Linnell, Jr.: “Pastorals | 5 impressions—of the
blocks | as samples for average strength [printing pressure?] | J.
Linnell.”Robert N. Essick, “Blake in the Marketplace, 2011,” Blake 45.4 (spring 2012): 125.
In 2011, Blake’s illustrations (from a copy at the Huntington) were reproduced in the William Blake Archive.
Wit’s Magazine (1784)
New Location: Bodleian (3—BB
Wollstonecraft, Mary, Original Stories from Real Life (1791, 1796)
1791 New Locations: British Library (2—BB
records 1), California (Berkeley), Melbourne, Trinity College (Cambridge) (2), Turnbull Library.
1796 New Locations: Amsterdam, Arkansas, Boston Public, Bryn Mawr,
California (Irvine), Michigan State, Morgan Library, Swarthmore College,
Turnbull Library, Wisconsin (Madison).
Young, Edward, Night Thoughts (1797)
New Locations: Bibliotheca Librorum apud Artificem (Sydney,
Australia), Brigham Young, Brown, Cincinnati and Hamilton County Public
Library, Elmira College, Eton College, Frick Collection, Hennepin County
Library (Minnetonka, Minnesota), Leeds, National Art Library (London),
National Library of Wales, New York University, Staatsbibliothek zu
Berlin, University of the Arts (Philadelphia), Wesleyan (Middletown,
Connecticut), Westmont College (Santa Barbara, California).
R. Noble, the printer of Night Thoughts,
was a jobbing printer—or perhaps two printers—whose residence was given
as 4 Great Shire Lane, Temple Bar, in 1790, 1794-1800, and who
registered press(es) at Green Arbour Court, Old Bailey, in 1799 and
1800.According to William B. Todd, A Directory of Printers and Others in Allied Trades, London and Vicinity 1800-1840
(London: Printing Historical Society, 1972), Richard Noble, printer, of
4 Great Shire Lane, Temple Bar, registered his press under the new law
on 30 Aug. 1799 with Joseph Burt and again by himself on 17 Jan. 1800.
Robert Noble, printer, resident at 4 Great Shire Lane, registered his
press with Joseph Burt at Green Arbour Court, Old Bailey, on 16 Jan.
1800. William Calvert, printer, of 4 Great Shire Lane, registered a
press with James Calvert on 1 July 1801 and operated it in 1801-23. R.
Noble was not apprenticed in the Stationers’ Company, according to Stationers’ Company Apprentices 1701-1800, ed. D. F. McKenzie (Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1978).
I have traced his imprint on 55 editions printed in 1790-1804, mostly
(36) in 1800-01; there were only 3 in 1796-98, and only one of the Noble
editions was a folio, Young’s Night Thoughts. R. Noble was far
from the achievement—and probably from the expense—of the great rivals
of Richard Edwards, Thomas Bensley with Macklin’s great folio Bible
(1800), and William Bulmer with the Boydells’ great folio Shakespeare
(1791-1805) and Milton (1793-97).
Costs of Young’s Night Thoughts
|537 watercolors and copyright therefor
||£21. 0. 0
|Paper for watercolors
||£5. 0. 0
|Paper and printing text of 250 copies [a]
|43 engravings paid for with 30 copies of the printed text
|Printing 250 copies each of 43 engravings [b] at 6s. per 100 [c]
||£32. 5. 0
|Binding at 2s. 2d. each [d]
||£27. 1. 8
||£1. 5. 0
It would be agreeable to think that the Blakes were paid for printing the engravings.
The heaviest investor in the work was William Blake. He had asked £105 for his watercolors; instead he received £21 (9d. per design)Joseph Farington’s diary, 24 June 1796 (BR 71). Blake’s friend J. T. Smith called it a “despicably low ... price” (Nollekens and His Times ; see BR 610).
plus a ream of paper (£5.0.0). We do not know how much or even whether
he was paid for his 43 folio engravings. At the very least he should
have expected £5.5.0 each for these very large plates (c. 33 x 41 cm.), the sum he received for his smaller outline plates (c. 35 x 25 cm.) for Flaxman’s Iliad (1805) and Hesiod (1817),BB pp. 561-62, 557-58. For his 12 highly finished, slightly smaller plates for Blair’s Grave, Schiavonetti was paid perhaps £540 (BR 246); he asked £63 for “The Day of Judgment” (BR 245). a total of £225.15.0.
It is possible that Blake was
paid for his engravings not in cash but in copies of the book, valued at
£5.5.0 for all four parts or £2.2.0 for part 1 (£1.1.0 deposit and
£1.1.0 on delivery).Prospectus, BR(2) 78-79. Colored copies are not mentioned in contemporary advertisements and reviews. Blake could then color and sell them for his own profit. Perhaps he was given about 30 copies, worth £31. Twenty-eight colored copies have been traced.Copies A-T are recorded in BB pp. 642-46, 956-57, copies U-Z in BBS pp. 272-73, and copies AA-BB in Blake (2000, 2002).
Some have contemporary inscriptions associating them with Blake: copy Q
is annotated “This Copy was coloured for me by Mr Blake | W. E.”; copy R
has “This copy colrd by W. Blake”; copy C is signed
“W. Blake”; and copies C and W have notes that they were to serve “as
pattern” for coloring, presumably by Mrs. Blake. A surprising number can
be traced to contemporary owners, most of whom owned other works by
Blake: [Rebekah] Bliss (d. 1819) (D), Thomas Butts (1757-1845) (A),
Baron Dimsdale (1712-1800) (X), “W. E.” (for William Esdaile [1758-1837]
or William Ensom [1796-1832]) (Q), ?Richard Edwards (1768-1827) (B),
Thomas Gaisford (1779-1855) (G), John S. Harford, Jr. (1785-1866) (R),
John Soane (1753-1837) (F), and Earl Spencer (1758-1834) (O).
The Night Thoughts were colored in two
styles, one about 1797 (C-D, I-J, Q-R, U), and the other about 1805 (B,
H, L, P). Presumably this means that Blake carried copies with him when
he moved from London to Felpham in 1800 and then back again when he
returned to London in 1803.
How much was he paid for these colored copies? We have
no direct evidence, but we can find a comfortable analogy in the prices
of colored copies of works in illuminated printing of the same size.
Blake’s prospectus of 1793 lists uncolored copies of America with 18 folio plates at 10s. 6d. and Visions of the Daughters of Albion with 11 folio plates at 7s. 6d., while the prices for colored copies in his letter of 9 June 1818 are £5.5.0 (America) and £3.3.0 (Visions). Subtracting the prices of uncolored copies from those for colored copies indicates that the price for coloring America was 5s. 3d. per plate and Visions 5s. ½d. per plate. If Blake calculated 5s. for coloring each of the 43 folio prints in Night Thoughts, he would have charged ten guineas per copy.The printed text of Night Thoughts is thrown in gratis.
About 1797 Blake was paid £10.10.0 for his 116 watercolor designs to Gray (BR 246). Even with a more modest five guineas per copy, he would have received £157.10.0 for 30 copies. With this he seems to have been content.When
Blake complained of neglect by the great illustrated book publishers
Boydell, Macklin, and Bowyer (Notebook p. 23), he did not mention
Richard Edwards, the publisher of his Night Thoughts, perhaps implying that he did not feel that he had been mistreated by Edwards.
The True Briton no. 1644 (31 March 1798) carried an advertisement for a
SPLENDID EDITION OF YOUNG’s NIGHT
YOUNG’s NIGHT THOUGHTS, illustrated with 43 very spirited Etchings, from the Designs of Mr. Blake.
With 150 Engravings from original Designs.
This Day is published, Price One Guinea to Subscribers,
PART I. containing FOUR BOOKS of
The novelty of the style in which these Engravings are
introduced, surrounding the Text they illustrate, and the masterly hand
with which they are executed, must, it is presumed, command the
attention of the Literati, the Amateur of the Fine Arts, and of the
The Paper and Type will be found correspondent with
the elegance of such an Undertaking; and it is hoped that, from the
extremely low price which the Editor has fixed upon the Work to
Subscribers, it will meet with that liberal encouragement which its
intrinsic merit, as well as its novelty, may justly claim from this
enlightened and literary Age.
The Subscription for the whole Work is Five Guineas:
one to be paid at the time of subscribing, and one on the delivery of
each Part. The Book will be completed in Four Parts, with all the
expedition consistent with the nature of a Work of such magnitude.
The Price will be considerably advanced to Non-Subscribers, on the publication of the Second Part, which is in forwardness.
London: Sold by Mr. Edwards,
Pall-Mall; Mr. Robson and Mr. Faulder, New Bond-street; Mr. Payne, Mews
Gate; Mr. White, Fleet-street; Messrs. Robinsons, Paternoster-row; Mr.
Clarke, Bond-street; Mr. Bell, Oxford-street; and Mr. Harding,
Pall-Mall.This advertisement and those in the Times,
discussed below, were first recorded in Wayne C. Ripley, “‘In Great
Forwardness’?: 1798 Advertisements for Volume Two of William Blake’s Night Thoughts” (see Ripley
in Part VI); I have made minute adjustments on the basis of the
originals. The booksellers are James Edwards, 77 Pall Mall; James
Robson, 27 New Bond Street; Robert Faulder, 42 New Bond Street; Thomas
Payne, Mews Gate; John White, 63 Fleet Street; George, George, and John
Robinson, 25 Paternoster Row; William Clarke, 38 Bond Street; Joseph
Bell, 148 Oxford Street; and Edward Harding, 98 Pall Mall.
Substantially the same announcement appeared in the Times nos. 4225 and 4227 (9, 11 July 1798):
Young’s Night Thoughts,
ſplendid Edition, with 150 Engravings from original Deſigns.--This Day
is publiſhed, price One Guinea to Subſcribers, Part the Firſt,
containing Four Books, of
YOUNG’s NIGHT THOUGHTS; illuſtrated ….The Times version differs from that in the True Briton
in (1) using the old-fashioned long “s” (ſ); (2) reducing the central
five paragraphs to one; (3) changing “whole Work is” to “whole complete
is”; (4) extending “Amateur” to “Amateurs”; (5) altering “Five”, “Four”,
and “Second” to “5”, “4”, and “2d”; (6) changing “in forwardness” to
“in great forwardness”, the only substantial change; (7) omitting
“London:” before the list of booksellers; (8) reducing the initial
capital letters to lower case in “Paper” and “Type”; and (9) replacing
“Mr.” in “Mr. Edwards” with “Messrs.” and omitting the succeeding “Mr.”s
No second part was published,In
his 1799 catalogue, Thomas Payne offered “Young’s Night Thoughts … 2
numbers … 1797 & 98,” but there is no other evidence that part 2 was
ever published. though an untraced engraved proof of “the only extant leaf of Night 5” has been recorded.William
Blake: Original Drawings, Engraved Work, Poetical Works, Books about
Blake, Etc. Mainly from the Collection of Dr. Greville Macdonald (London: Francis Edwards, [?1930]), lot 44.
The 1798 advertisements echo the prospectus of spring
1797, correct its “forty” engravings to “43,” and add eight new
booksellers while omitting Richard Edwards. The author of the
advertisements (James Edwards?) is notably more emphatic about Blake’s
plates—a “masterly hand” which will “command the attention of the
Literati, the Amateur of the Fine Arts, and of the Artist”—than
the author (Richard Edwards?) of the “Advertisement” in the 1797
edition, who conceived “it to be unnecessary to speak” of “the merit of
Mr. Blake.”BR (2) 78-79, 76.
Did Richard Edwards Publish the Night Thoughts?
Richard Edwards was identified as the publisher in
Farington’s diary (24 June 1796), in the prospectus (?spring 1797),
along with James Edwards and Robert Bowyer, and on the title page
(1797). However, the advertisements in the True Briton (March 1798) and the Times
(July 1798) omit him and instead name James Edwards, Robson, Faulder,
Payne, White, Robinsons, Clarke, Bell, and Harding, whilst the notice in
the Monthly Magazine (June 1798) names only Robson.
For some time Richard Edwards had been withdrawing from business;See G. E. Bentley, Jr., The
Edwardses of Halifax: The Making and Selling of Beautiful Books in
London and Halifax by William, John, Richard, Thomas, and Especially
James Edwards, the Medician Bookseller (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, forthcoming). perhaps he did not publish Night Thoughts at all. The only known sale in 1797 is by his brother James on 6 November.BR(2) 79. After Richard Edwards withdrew from business, the Night Thoughts was taken over by a congery of booksellers headed by James Edwards, who advertised it in the True Briton and the Times. Then James Edwards too retired, and in 1798 James Robson took over the Night Thoughts.
The work sold very slowly, in part because the publishers kept changing. In 1811 Crabb Robinson claimed that Blake’s edition of Night Thoughts “is no longer to be bought.”[Crabb Robinson], Vaterländisches Museum (1811) (BR 600). Robinson bought a copy on 27 Dec. 1810 (BR 600fn).
The commission for the Night Thoughts was due
to the genius of Richard Edwards. He chose a fine, expensive paper
(1794 | J WHATMAN) and a fine artist and engraver (William Blake).
However, his claim in the integral advertisement that “he has shrunk from no expence”BR(2) 76. is plainly false. He allowed William Blake to bear the major part of the expense of the only volume that was published.
And he scarcely published the work, or perhaps he did
not publish it at all. He withdrew from business, apparently for
personal reasons, just when the Night Thoughts was finished. Apparently he never advertised it in 1797 or sent out a review copy. The contemporary obscurity of Young’s Night Thoughts (1797) with Blake’s illustrations is significantly due to the commercial neglect of Richard Edwards.
All 43 Night Thoughts prints are reproduced in John Windle, Pictorial Blake (see 2011 in Part IV).
Part IV: Catalogues and Bibliographies
1846 8–11 June
of the Valuable Library of the Late William Holgate, Esq. of the
General Post Office … Which … Will Be Sold by Auction, by Messrs. S.
Leigh Sotheby & Co. … June 8th, and Three Following Days
. . <Bodleian>
“47 Beloe (Wm.) Poems and Translations, 1788—Borrow,
Romantic Ballads, from the Danish, 1826—[Henry Card] Brother-in-Law, a
Com.[edy] Lee Priory Press, 1817—Boyd, Plays, 1793—Blake, Poetical Sketches together 5 vol.” (Rodd, 7s.). This is perhaps copy K.NB: The five works are not said to be bound together.
1898 1 June
Catalogue of Some of Blake’s Pictures at “The Salterns,” Parkstone.
[Parkstone, Dorset, 1 June 1898].
The catalogue of 35 pictures (34 by Blake)Butlin
#194, 289, 294, 297, 301, 306, 310, 316, 320, 323, 434, 436, 440, 450,
452, 455-56, 459, 461, 464, 469, 483, 493, 497-99, 503, 505, 509,
511-12, 515, 525, 675. belonging to Captain Frederick John Butts,
the grandson of Blake’s patron Thomas Butts, was almost certainly made
for the visit to his home called The Salterns on 1 June 1898 by the
Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. The catalogue cites
“Rossetti’s Book on BLAKE,” i.e., William Michael Rossetti’s “Annotated
Lists of Blake’s Paintings, Drawings, [Writings] and Engravings” in
Alexander Gilchrist, Life of William Blake, “Pictor Ignotus” (1863) 2: 199-264 (the references correspond to the 1863 edition, not to that of 1880).
The only known copy of the catalogue is among the Mary
Butts papers, Beinecke Library, Yale University; the cover is
reproduced and the contents transcribed in Mary Lynn Johnson,
“‘Catalogue of Some of Blake’s Pictures at “The Salterns”’: Captain
Butts as Exhibitor, Litigator, and Co-Heir (with His Sister Blanche),”
(see University of Toronto Quarterly in Part VI). Johnson is the source of all the information here.
§Blake exhibition, Free Public Library, Lambeth.
The exhibition is known only from the §typed catalogue
with a collection of Blake ephemera formed by Thomas Wright offered in
§John Hart, catalogue 91 (March 2011), lot 75.
1971 21 May–4 June
An Exhibition of English Prints Blake to Sutherland May 21st-June 4th, 1971. Folio Fine Art 6 Stratford Place London W1N 0BH
Seventy-two entries, with prices, including, under Blake, 17 Virgil prints at £460 (#2*), Young, Night Thoughts (1797), £390 (#3), Job “1825,” “Very fine proof impressions on French paper,” £6,000 (#4*), plus Calvert (#18-22) and Palmer (#23-35).
1982 15 September–1983 15 February
*David Bindman. William Blake His Art and Times
. 1982, §1988. <BBS
§*Karen Mulhallen, Canadian Forum
62, no. 723 (Dec.-Jan. 1982-83): 33-34.
*Robert N. Essick. The Separate Plates of William Blake: A Catalogue
. 1983. <BBS
For addenda, see Blake 44.4 in Part VI.
*Printmaking in Britain 1775-1965: Two Centuries of the Art of the Print in Britain
[at the] William Weston Gallery
. Catalogue no. 1 (1987, year 20, issue no. 203). London: William Weston Gallery, 1987.
Blake is 96-100, Palmer 101-05.
*Robert N. Essick. William Blake’s Commercial Book Illustrations
. 1991. <BBS
For addenda, see Blake 44.4 in Part VI.
2003 31 March–2 May
*William Blake at Syracuse University
. 2003. <Blake
The catalogue is an oblong 4o with 52 unnumbered pages and 79 reproductions (34 from Innocence [Q], 13 from Gay, Fables , 22 from Job ).
2006 15 February–1 May
*Martin Myrone. Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli, Blake and the Romantic Imagination
. 2006. <Blake
§*Stéphane Guégan, “Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli, Blake and the Romantic Imagination,” Tribune de l’Art
24 March 2006 (in French).
2006 2 May
*William Blake: Designs for Blair’s Grave
[Sotheby’s auction]. 2006. <Blake
§Anon., “The Watercolour Windfall Worth £5m,” Scotsman
13 May 2003.
§*Jeremy Lott, “Blake Watercolours Export Barred,” Country Life
31 March 2005.
§*Didier Rykner, “Dix-neuf aquarelles de William Blake interdites temporairement de sortie du Royaume Uni,” Tribune de l’Art
16 May 2005 (in French).
§Carol Vogel, “The Splintering of a Masterpiece,” New York Times
15 Feb. 2006.
§Anon., “Blake Collection to Be Broken Up and Sold in New York,” Independent
[London] 17 Feb. 2006.
§*Didier Rykner, “Les aquarelles de Blake pour Designs for Blair’s Grave dispersées aux enchères,” Tribune de l’Art
17 Feb. 2006 (in French).
§Andreas Whittam Smith, “Paintings That Are Worth Saving for the Nation,” Independent
[London] 20 Feb. 2006.
§Anon., “19 Blakes Tumble out of Attic,” Bahrain Tribune
5 April 2006.
*Will Bennett, “Art Sales: Dream Discovery Turns to Dust,” Telegraph
[London] 2 May 2006 (very full and useful).
§*Didier Rykner, “Les Amis du Louvre acquièrent une acquarelle de William Blake pour Designs for Blair’s Grave,” Tribune de l’Art
3 May 2006 (in French).
2007 7 April–2008 6 April
*David Bindman. Mind-Forg’d Manacles: William Blake and Slavery
. 2007. <Blake
Jeremy Tambling (see Blake 44.4
in Part VI).
2008 26 January–20 April
Blake’s Shadow: William Blake and His Artistic Legacy. <Blake
Jeremy Tambling (see Blake 44.4
in Part VI).
2009 2 April–28 June
*Michael Phillips, ed., with the assistance of Catherine de Bourgoing. William Blake (1757-1827): Le Génie visionnaire du romantisme anglais
. . <Blake
§*Jean-David Jumeau-Lafond and Didier Rykner, “William Blake: Le Génie visionnaire du romantisme anglais,” Tribune de l’Art
5 June 2009 (in French).
§*María Paz Amaro, “William Blake: la exposición de 1809,” Istor: Revista de historia internacional
10, no. 38 (2009): 92-99 (in Spanish).
§Dominique Blanc, “William Blake, génie visionnaire,” Connaissance des Arts
no. 670 (2009): 16-23 (in French) (under §?Anon. in <Blake
*Philippa Simpson (see Blake 45.1
in Part VI).
2009 20 April–4 October
*Martin Myrone, ed. Seen in My Visions: A Descriptive Catalogue of Pictures
. 2009. <Blake
Paul Flux, Albion Magazine
(autumn 2009) (it leaves an “impression ... of worthiness”).
2010 8 November–2011 4 April
§Blake and Physiognomy. Devised and curated by Philippa Simpson and Sibylle Erle. Tate Britain, London.
There was no catalogue. The display was associated with the publication of Sibylle Erle, Blake, Lavater and Physiognomy (2010) <Blake (2011§)>.
Martin Butlin, Burlington Magazine
153 (2011): 608 (with another) (Butlin dates the display Jan.-March 2011).
2011 25 January
Property from the Collection of Charles Ryskamp Sold for the Primary Benefit of Princeton University
. Sotheby’s (New York).
*Lot 149: William Blake, A Woman Enthroned, Two Figures on Each Side
, pen and black ink (late 1770s) [Butlin #99] (estimate $7,000-$10,000 [sold for $5,313 to John Windle for Robert N. Essick]).
*Lot 209: Sketches for America and Other Books
(recto); The Lion Lying Down with the Ox
(verso), 26.3 x 20 cm., given by Grace Lansing Lambert to Ryskamp 1969
(estimate $30,000-$50,000 [sold for $56,250 to John Windle for Robert N.
2011 22 March
Auction 18784: Books, Maps, Manuscripts and Historical Photographs
. Bonhams (London).
: Poetical Sketches
([Y]) (estimate £60,000-£80,000 [sold for £60,000 plus buyer’s premium
of £12,000 = £72,000 to John Windle for Robert N. Essick]).
2011 29 March
Auction 19386: Papers and Portraits: The Roy Davids Collection Part II
. Bonhams (London).
: Blake’s letter to Ozias Humphry of 18 Jan. 1808 (A) (estimate £50,000-£60,000 [not sold]).
. Catalogue 48. San Francisco: John Windle, 2011. 4o
A gorgeously illustrated catalogue with splendid treasures including
*28: Job (1826), “Proof” set, including the printed *label
(unpriced) and Linnell’s draft prospectus plus “the original
hand-lettered wrappers” ($82,500) [previously offered in Windle
catalogue 46 (2009), lot 8]. Robert N. Essick bought the draft
prospectus and the wrappers.
*29: George Cumberland’s card (1827) printed in pale brown, no indication of whether this copy is recorded in Essick, Separate Plates ($17,500).
*30: Hayley, Little Tom (1800), Muir’s excellent facsimile  ($750).
*31: Gay, Fables (1793), “very tall, possibly large-paper” ($1500).
*32: Hayley, Ballads (1805), “very fine copy with large
margins showing the plate marks. Bookplate of Lord Eversley,” “with the
first three plates in the first state” ($6750).
*33: Malkin, A Father’s Memoirs of His Child (1806) ($1875).
*34: Stedman, Surinam (1796), “large-paper copy,” “every
plate with fine original coloring” (3 heightened with gold), “virtually
identical” to a copy sold to Essick in 2000, in “contemporary marbled
2011 29 November–2012 26 February
§William Blake exhibition at the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum, Moscow.
The exhibition was organized with help from the
British Council, with 150 exhibits from the Tate, British Museum,
Victoria & Albert Museum, National Portrait Gallery, Fitzwilliam
Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, Petworth House, and Britten-Pears
Foundation (Aldeburgh). The apparatus includes an interactive education
Reviews, puffs, etc.By
Jan. 2012 there were 3,343,000 online accounts of the exhibition; the
first hundred I saw seemed to be merely publicity. I have not tried very
hard—indeed scarcely at all—to find reviews, both because the vast
majority of them simply recycle publicity handouts from the museum and
because I can’t read Cyrillic script.
*Joy Neumeyer, “Mysterious Visions,” Moscow News
12 Dec. 2011.
Anon., “Blake Exhibition in Moscow” (see Blake 45.3
in Part VI).
2011 10 December–2012 1 June
§Blake painting on display at Mead Art Museum, Amherst College.
*Anon., “A New Blake for Amherst,”
Amherst College online notice (Blake’s tempera of The Raising of Jairus’s Daughter
was given by Dr. Henry deForest Webster, ’48).
2011 [11 December]
A Catalogue of Recently Acquired Original Blake Illustrations from a
Private Collection, Along with the Reference Library and a Complete Run
of the Blake Trust Publications, and Other Facsimiles. Also Blake
Facsimiles from the Biblioteca La Solana, Printed by Robert N. Essick
. San Francisco: John Windle Antiquarian Bookseller, 2011. 4o
, 80 pp., 135 reproductions; no ISBN.
There are 249 lots, nos. 1-118 being mostly single prints by Blake taken from commercial books.
*“A Note on the Blake Facsimiles from the Biblioteca
La Solana” (76-79). No. 248 and the previous lot [sold, no number] are
prints pulled in July and Aug. 2011 from “relief photo-etchings” on
copper and zinc made “in the 1970s” by “professional craftsmen” and
Robert N. Essick of No Natural Religion pl. a2, Songs pls. 3, 8, 18, 24, 33, 47, America pls. 1-2, 12, 14, and The Ghost of Abel pls. 1-2 using “intaglio ink” and J Whatman | 1794 or nineteenth-century or “modern” paper.
The Windle catalogue reproductions include all 22 for Job (1826), all 13 for Blair’s Grave (1813), and all 43 for Young’s Night Thoughts (1797).
§*Christopher Baker. English Drawings and Watercolours 1600-1900
[in the] National Gallery of Scotland
. Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland, 2011.
The Blakes in the National Gallery of Scotland include Hecate (Butlin #317), God Writing upon the Tables of the Covenant (#448), and Job Confessing His Presumption to God Who Answers from the Whirlwind (#461).
Part V: Books Owned by William Blake the Poet
Swedenborg, Emanuel, The Wisdom of Angels, Concerning Divine Love and Divine Wisdom (1788)
The title-page transcription in BB p. 696
should be emended to read “PRINTED AND SOLD BY W. CHALKLEN, GROCERS
COURT, | POULTRY. | M.DCC.LXXXVIII” (that is, add “AND SOLD” and start a
new line before “POULTRY.”). Blake’s copy in the British Library is
reproduced in §Eighteenth Century Collections Online, though his marginalia are rarely legible.
Part VI: Criticism, Biography, and Scholarly Studies
*Morton D. Paley, New Books on Literature 19
(22 May 2010) <Blake
(2011)§> (“Adams makes Blake’s thought accessible in non-‘Blakean’ terms”).
*Alexander S. Gourlay (see Blake 45.2
*Christopher Rowland (see Blake 45.1
A summary of memorials of Blake by John Freeman, Bookman <BB #1632>, S. P. B. Mais, Daily Telegraph <BBS p. 557> (see Mais, below), and R. R. Tatlack, Daily Telegraph <BBS p. 657> (see Tatlack, below).
In the context of a spate of forged Bank of England
bank notes, and thirty-two hangings for bank-note forgery, Anon.’s plan
reprints Tilloch’s testimonial for his proposal for a new, forgery-proof
bank note of 5 April 1797 (see BR 78) with its list of
nineteen engravers supporting it, including Blake. See Mark Crosby,
“Blake and the Banknote Crises of 1797, 1800, and 1818,” under University of Toronto Quarterly, below.
The plan seems to be reprinted in the Times, 21 March 1818, New Times, 1 April 1818: 4, and Philosophical Magazine, 1 July 1818.The records of these in Newspaper Archive are so heavily corrupted as to be almost illegible.
A photograph of Blake’s tombstone in Bunhill Fields
(now “becoming a Grade I listed Park”), with a paragraph about where
It was written by Alfred G. Hopkins, author of “William Blake’s House at Lambeth,” Times Literary Supplement (1918) <BB #1882>.
A commentary on Blake’s change from the “fancy of the
innocent and happy world” to his “recognition and criticism of the
rotten experienced world,” saying that this represents the poet’s
maturity in creative thinking.
About Blake’s illustrations for the Book of Job.
This is a shorter version of the essay in Croatian, “Utjecaji Poezije Williama Blakea na rock glazbu Jima Morrisona,” below.
A shorter version in Montenegrin is in her “Potraga za zagubljenim značenjima,” above.
About Blake’s use of Indian imagery.
It includes “Autonomous Song: Chabanon and Blake” (65-77).
The number of reports of fairy funerals 1824-40
indicates that Blake’s account is scarcely “an indication of ‘disordered
... sensations’ or fey eccentricity.”
Donald M. Hassler, Utopian Studies
12.2 (March 2001): 262-63
(“The book is most valuable as a rich mine of detail”; scholars “will
love this book”; the author is retired “but still immensely
§Anon., “The World of Paperbacks,” Critical Review
22 Sept. 2006 (by “the leading Blake scholar”).
The Google snippet reproduction from the Ladies’ Cabinet (1840) is really from the Illustrated London Magazine (1867).
*Alexander S. Gourlay (see Blake 45.3
A version is available in Bournemouth University Research Online.
Blake/An Illustrated Quarterly
Volume 44, number 4 (spring 2011)
*Robert N. Essick. “Blake in the Marketplace, 2010.” 116-42. (A
customarily meticulous and deft record of sales and offerings of works
by and associated with Blake. Color illustrations.[e]
An “Appendix: New Information on Blake’s Engravings” [141-42] has addenda for his The Separate Plates of William Blake
 and William Blake’s Commercial Book Illustrations
Jeremy Tambling. Mind-Forg’d Manacles: William Blake and Slavery,
Whitworth Art Gallery, University of Manchester, 26 Jan.–6 April 2008;
Blake’s Shadow: William Blake and His Artistic Legacy, Whitworth Gallery
26 Jan.–20 April 2008. 142-43. (Largely about Blake’s Shadow, which
seemed “patchy”; in Mind-Forg’d Manacles
(the catalogue), “some of Bindman’s interpretations ... seemed oversimplifying.”)
Goes Online.” 143. (From vol. 45, no. 1 [summer 2011], Blake
will be published both on paper and online; “the online and print content will be the same.”)
Blake/An Illustrated Quarterly
Volume 45, number 1 (summer 2011)
*G. E. Bentley, Jr., with the assistance of Hikari Sato for Japanese publications. “William Blake and His Circle: A Checklist of Publications and Discoveries in 2010.”
4-36. (“Editors’ notes: Illustrations to the checklist are available in the online version of the article …. Addenda and corrigenda
to Blake Records
, 2nd ed. (2004), now appear online. They are updated yearly in conjunction with the publication of the checklist.”)
*Philippa Simpson. Michael Phillips, ed., with the assistance of Catherine de Bourgoing, William Blake (1757-1827): Le Génie visionnaire du romantisme anglais (2009)
37-38. (“It is hard to excuse the large overlaps among several of the
essays,” and the catalogue of Blake’s graphic work is oddly supported by
“the concentration upon Blake’s writing.”)
*Christopher Rowland. Magnus Ankarsjö, William Blake and Religion: A New Critical View (2009)
. 38-39. (“This book is an interesting read,” but it “omits key aspects of Blake’s [religious] concerns.”)
Blake/An Illustrated Quarterly
Volume 45, number 2 (fall 2011)
In memory of Elizabeth B. (Beth) Bentley, 1930–2011
Note that the online version has more reproductions,
some of them in color (the reproductions in the hard-copy version are
only in black and white).
Jennifer Davis Michael. “Eternity in the Moment: William Blake and Mary Oliver.”
44-50. (The twenty-first-century poet Mary Oliver writes poems with faint echoes of Blake.)
*Morton D. Paley. “William Blake, George Romney, and The Life of George Romney, Esq.”
50-65. (A careful presentation of the context of Hayley’s biography and its illustrations.)
*Robert N. Essick. “Attribution and Reproduction: Death Pursuing the Soul through the Avenues of Life.”
66-70. (Pace Butlin, “I believe that Death Pursuing
is entirely Blake’s work, [although] I must confess to some slight misgivings” .)
*Alexander S. Gourlay. Hazard Adams, Blake’s Margins: An Interpretive Study of the Annotations (2009)
. 70-71. (Adams’s book is “eminently sensible and learned.”)
Blake/An Illustrated Quarterly
Volume 45, number 3 (winter 2011-12)
*Angus Whitehead. “‘an excellent saleswoman’: The Last Years of Catherine Blake.”
76-90. (With copious and convincing facts, and contrary to BR
and all other predecessors, Whitehead demonstrates that Catherine Blake
lived at 1 Queen Street, Mayfair, in March 1828–spring 1829 and at 17
Upper Charlton Street in spring 1829–October 1831.)
*Tristanne Connolly. Laura Quinney, William Blake on Self and Soul (2009)
. 90-91. (“Quinney’s emphasis on authentic experience of the self leads her away from adequate research and precise reading.”)
Nelson Hilton. Wayne C. Ripley and Justin Van Kleeck, eds., Editing and Reading Blake (2010)
92-94. (In all this process of “editionings,” “immersive textuality,”
and “electronic heuristics” which “remediate” Blake, “would it be such
apostasy to say that none of this matters
*Alexander S. Gourlay. Gerald E. Bentley, Jr., William Blake’s Conversations: A Compilation, Concordance, and Rhetorical Analysis (2008)
94-96. (Bentley has “created something rich, strange, and likely to
prove enduringly useful,” especially in the concordance and the
“fascinating” evidence “about the way he [Blake] probably pronounced
*Christopher Z. Hobson. Sarah Haggarty and Jon Mee, eds., Blake and Conflict (2009)
96-98. (The volume “does a great deal both to extend knowledge of
Blake’s intellectual and historical contexts and ... to sustain an
ongoing debate over his complicity with or defiance of ideologies of
*Molly Anne Rothenberg. R. Paul Yoder, The Narrative Structure of William Blake’s Poem Jerusalem: A Revisionist Interpretation (2010)
99-101. (Because “Yoder has truly understood the purport of the poem’s
form,” his book “offers an indispensable introduction to Jerusalem
Kathryn Freeman. James Rovira, Blake and Kierkegaard: Creation and Anxiety (2010)
. 101-02. (The “argument [is] broad and shallow”; “the book’s breadth jeopardizes depth.”)
Mary Silverstein. Mickle Maher, There Is a Happiness That Morning Is (Theater Oobleck, Chicago, 2011)
103. (“A witty, amusing, and moving love story about two college
professors,” inspired by “Infant Joy” and “The Sick Rose.” “Editors’
note: Photographs of the production are in the online version of this
Anon. “New Members of Blake
’s Advisory Board.” 103. (They are Tristanne Connolly and Tilar Mazzeo.)
Anon. “Blake Exhibition in Moscow.” 103. (Announcement of “the first
major exhibition of Blake’s works in Russia ... at the Pushkin State
Museum of Fine Arts.”)
See Black, Jonathan (his pseudonym), above.
The paper, based on A. T. Story’s life of Blake
(1893), was delivered by the hon. secretary of the club on the occasion
of their visit to her home at the Salterns to see the Blake pictures
there; the author (1863-1944) was the wife of Captain Frederick John
Butts (1833-1905), the grandson of Blake’s patron Thomas Butts.
The account of the Blakes in the nude reading Paradise Lost in their garden has a
(Note by Captain Butts.—He remembers, as a small boy, hearing that his grandfather emphatically denied that there was a word of truth in this story,A. E. Briggs, “Mr. Butts, the Friend and Patron of Blake,” Connoisseur
19 (1907): 95, wrote that Butts’s grandson “distinctly remembers
hearing his grandfather declare that there was no truth in it” (see BR xxvi-xxvii). Ada Briggs was the aunt of the widow of Captain Butts. which has however found a place in all Blake’s numerous biographies.)
The information here derives from Mary Lynn Johnson,
“‘Catalogue of Some of Blake’s Pictures at “The Salterns”’: Captain
Butts as Exhibitor, Litigator, and Co-Heir (with His Sister Blanche)”
(see University of Toronto Quarterly, below).
A “naive” reading of “The Tyger” by “seeing the tiger
as a real animal in the first place.” The poem’s “realistic concern
about animals” reflects Blake’s thoughts on the issue of real innocence.
“And did those feet ...,” “first composed by William
Blake” and “later written to music ... by Sir Charles Hubert Hastings
Parry,” “was made the official anthem of the England football team” in
2000, and in 2008 the dean of Southwark, the Very Rev. Colin Slee,
“advised ... that the hymn would not be sung because it was ‘not in the
glory of God.’”
“We have lost, and cannot regain, for the Church the
powers of Sir Joshua and Flaxman, of Blake and Turner; but we have great
artists still left” (13). The heading describes the author as “John
Duke Coleridge, Esq., M. A., Barrister at Law, Late Fellow of Exeter
College, Oxford.” John Duke Coleridge (1820-94), first Baron Coleridge
(1873), lawyer, M.P., was a great-nephew of the poet.
W. B. Gerard, Eighteenth-Century Book Reviews Online
13 July 2009.
About “the political valence of labor.”
“An intermedial comparison and an analysis of shared
motifs and themes in the works of William Blake and Hermann Hesse”;
Hesse’s work is a “continuation of Blake’s visionary mysticism.”
§Bruce Stillians, Biography
1.3 (summer 1978): 86-88.
About “the American Transcendentalists’ reading of Songs of Innocence and [of] Experience (1794) in the 1840s” with “a reading of Blake’s America: a Prophecy (1793) showing that the Civil War fulfilled his prophecy of inevitable future conflict” (209).
Martin Butlin, Burlington Magazine
153 (2011): 608 (with another) (“The account of the publication of Lavater’s several writings is detailed and fascinating”).
Reflections on singing Blake’s “Jerusalem” hymn in school.
A brief discussion of the significance of the opposing imageries of “The Lamb” in Innocence and “The Tyger” in Experience.
Reviews, announcements, etc. (1863 ed.)
“Life of William Blake, the Artist. By Alexander Gilchrist. With numerous Illustrations from his Works,” Athenaeum
no. 1771 (5 Oct. 1861): 455 (an advertisement; notice that “Pictor Ignotus
” has not yet been substituted for “the Artist,” suggesting that the change was made after Gilchrist’s death in 1861).
Reviews (1880 ed.)
Frederick Wedmore, “William Blake,” Temple Bar
(1881) B. Littell’s Living Age
(1881) C. Eclectic Magazine
#2939A-C> D. Good Literature
[New York] 2, no. 47 (20 Aug. 1881): 166-70 (a digest of Blake’s life
from Gilchrist; “To know Blake is to be glad to be with him” ). E. Library Magazine of American and Foreign Thought
8 (1881): 615-31.
Charles Hargrove, “William Blake
,” Modern Review
2 (July 1881): 565-77 (very sympathetic to Blake—the book is “a real
delight to eye and mind”—despite the fact that he was “an artist—who
never learned to paint, nor even the refinements of his own lower craft
of engraver” [565, 566]).
§*Giunta, Graziana. “La Forma dell’Immaginazione: William Blake e l’antroposofia.” Libera Conoscenza [spiritual science web site] (). 47 pp. In Italian.
§Jacqueline LeBlanc, Philosophy and Literature
18.1 (April 1994): 162-63.
See Paul Miner, “Interpreting Blake’s ‘Auguries,’” below.
Shirley Dent, Times Literary Supplement
18 March 2011: 25 (it
is often “acute” and “gripping,” but “dollops [of “untrammelled
theory”] swirl into the narrative” “at inopportune moments”).
*Christopher Z. Hobson (see Blake 45.3
Compares the “sentiments” of the works contributed in 2010 to the Foundling Museum (London).
An analysis of four types of women found in Blake’s
poems: “perfect ladies in illusion, nuns wandering on snowy ground,
women aping men in greed and desire, and androgynous women.”
He “examines Blake’s musical practice in relation to the poetry and designs of Songs,” which is part of a “multi-media project entitled Songs of William Blake, a CD featuring musical interpretations [some audible here] of fourteen poems from Songs of Innocence and of Experience ... and a substantial liner-note commentary (from which the current essay is partly derived).”
“A similar conception of the sublime as process can be discerned in the visual dimension of Blake’s art” (32)—but no visual image is reproduced.
About the Blake collections of W. Graham Robertson and Miss A. E. Carthew.
An interpretation of Blake’s myth in his poems,
arguing that “Blake lauds the supreme power of human imagination at the
expense of enlightenment and reason as well as of orthodox religion” and
that his notion of mythology “reflects the revolutionary trends of his
The poets dealt with are Jones, Blake, Shelley, and Southey.
§Ralph Colp, Biography
9.1 (winter 1986): 89-91.
A meditation on the MIC (Military Industrial Complex) with assistance from Blake.
“In painting, do we grow weary of … Blake’s terrible and ghastly embodiments …?” (5 [1848 ed.]).
A comment on four Chinese versions of the first stanza
of Blake’s poem, claiming that the “paradoxes” there were “seldom known
by Western readers.”
An analysis of the poem, using a few points from Michael Halliday’s systemic functional linguistics.
A brief comment on how some of Blake’s poems reflect the harsh social conditions of the time.
A brief comment on Blake’s poem, suggesting that it is “revolutionary.”
A commentary on Blake as “a thinker of civilization,”
suggesting that the poet “is aware of all kinds of evil in civilized
society but does not mean to get rid of civilization out of prejudice.”
An interpretation of the symbolic meanings of the
three-stanza structure of “The Ecchoing Green,” which represent “the
three stages of man’s growth” and display “the poet’s love for life,
nature, and mankind.”
An interpretation of the biblical elements in the
poems, suggesting that Blake criticizes the restraints by religion on
men and in the process creates his own religious system.
An explanation of four possible approaches to the
reading of “The Tyger”: “imagistic,” “religious,” “political,” and
A commentary on “Blake’s attack on social problems of
his time such as racial discrimination, child workers, religious
persecution, and the widening gap between rich and poor.”
A play set on the day in 1805 when Blake learned that Schiavonetti was to engrave his designs for Blair’s Grave.
Reviews have appeared in the Gloucestershire Echo, British Theatre Guide, and by Shirley Dent in Culture Wars.
A biographical sketch of Blake’s creative career.
Mary Silverstein (see Blake 45.3
See *Anon., “Blake Remembered after a Century,” above.
She offers “close readings” of Defoe, Smollett, Blake, Barbauld, and Mary Shelley.
Writings of the left hand are in prose. “Blake sought to redeem the poet’s [Milton’s] radicalism.”
The Blake entries consist of Brenda Ayres, “London”
(246-47), Lynn Lee Ching, “A Poison Tree” (340-41), John H. Jones, “The
Clod and the Pebble” (75-76) and “The Shepherd” (408-09), Diane Mason,
“The Chimney Sweeper” (from Innocence and Experience) (70-72) and “The Ecchoing Green” (105-06), Melissa Ann Greggs-West, “Holy Thursday” (Innocence and Experience) (181-83), Tara McGann, Songs of Innocence and of Experience (420-26), Jennifer Banach Palladino, “Blake, William (1757-1827)” (34-37), Valeria Pellis, America (7), Sarah Peterson, Visions of the Daughters of Albion (474-76), Andrea Rummel, “The Garden of Love” (149-50), Jon Saklofske, “The Tyger” (466-67), G. R. Taneja, Jerusalem (210-11), “The Little Boy Lost” and “Found” (244-45), The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (264-66), Milton (275-76), “Night” (298-99), and “Nurse’s Song” (Innocence and Experience) (305-06), Marilyn Walker, “The Little Black Boy” (244), and Elaine Ward, “The Sick Rose” (412).
In Blake’s design of Christ in the Sepulchre, Guarded by Angels, “Ark-Tomb serves as Ark-Womb.”
The “paltry critic” in Winckelmann’s Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks, trans. Fuseli (1765), is echoed in Blake’s defence of Fuseli in the Monthly Magazine (1806).
Echoes of Paradise Lost, especially in Urizen pl. 25.
Especially about the “Four Mighty Ones” in The Four Zoas, p. 3, and Plato’s Timaeus, trans. Thomas Taylor (1793).
On sexual contexts.
In Jerusalem pl. 98, Blake “intentionally converts Milton’s ‘precious’ Tree of Morality into ‘Albion’s Poverty Tree.’”
“Blake’s warping word-play of ‘Shame in a Mist’ [in “then She bore Pale desire”] derives from Milton’s Paradise Lost.”
“Blake’s iconography of Los as an embryo in The Book of Los subtly revises James Hervey’s Meditations among the Tombs and Ovid’s Metamorphoses.”
“‘The Voice of the Ancient Bard’ ... specifically rebukes the philosophy of John Locke.”
In Jerusalem pl. 39, the “puzzling Emblem ... symbolizes a (Rain)Bow that is an anti-Rainbow,
a ‘black’ design” which “deliberately contrasts Noah’s Rainbow of
Forgiveness with Satan’s (Rain)Bow of Unforgiveness (an anti-Rainbow).”
About the Canterbury Pilgrims designs of Blake and Stothard and the deaths of Cromek’s engravers of Stothard’s design.
“Blake frequently re-defines minutiae from John Milton’s texts.”
“The Fly” from Songs of Experience “finds part of its philosophical coordinates in Emanuel Swedenborg’s The Divine Love and [Divine] Wisdom.”
He “attempts to illuminate the meaning and counter-meaning of Blake’s deliberately administrated darkness,” especially in animal contexts. See also Alexander S. Gourlay, “More on Blake’s ‘Auguries,’” above.
On astronomical contexts.
In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding,
Locke says that “had mankind been made but with four senses, … the
objects of the fifth sense” would be “far from our [corporeal] notice,”
and in No Natural Religion, Blake writes that “From a perception of only 3 senses, … none could deduce a fourth or a fifth.”
“Blake borrowed profusely from Macpherson.”
“The Four Zoas is too big for the World Wide Web,” but Coleridge’s account in Biographia Literaria (1817) of David Hartley’s law of association in his Observations on Man (1749) “provides an admirable critique of the way that we think about the mechanics of the World Wide Web” (265, 267).
It includes five chapters on The Four Zoas.
§Naomi Ossar, Kritikon Litterarum
38.3-4 (Nov. 2011): 276-78.
Essentially an advertisement for the sale of separate prints from his facsimile copperplates of America pls. 1-2, 9-13, Europe pls. 1-2, “8(9),” “9(11),” “10(12),” “15(16),” and 17(18),” and Songs, plus planned selections from Marriage and Jerusalem,
which “can be printed to order, prices from £25 to £150 each,” some of
them on Whatman paper. There are sections on “Making the Plates,”
“Printing,” and “Contact and Purchase.” “Plates of the Songs can take to up to 30 minutes or more [sic] to ink and wipe, with the plates of America and Europe taking up [to] two hours,” with up to four impressions without reinking.
An explication of the cover reproduction of The Ghost of a Flea. The title is from Swift’s “On Poetry: a Rhapsody” (1733). The author is at the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia.
Publisher’s blurb: “Do William Blake’s lyrics for the
popular hymn ‘Jerusalem’ reveal an extraordinary insight into the
so-called ‘missing years of Jesus’ …?”; “Christ did indeed visit
The book is about “what Blake said about … the subject’s experience of its own interiority” (xi).
Her “Escape from Repetition: Blake versus Locke and Wordsworth,” Ritual, Routine, and Regime: Repetition in Early Modern British and European Cultures, ed. Lorna Clymer (2006) <Blake (2008)§>, is “the earliest writing I did for this project” (xv).
§Nelson Hilton, Wordsworth Circle
41.4 (autumn 2010): 230-31; §reply by Quinney, 231.
§Mark Crosby, Review of English Studies
62 (Nov. 2011): 823-25.
*Tristanne Connolly (see Blake 45.3
This is a careful study of the man variously described
by contemporaries as “very energetic and of a lively and cheerful
disposition” (Thomas Goff Lupton), “a perfect Brain-sucker” (Walter
Scott), of “most gentlemanly manners, and took much in society” (Martha
Eastwick), and “a man of the most iniquitous duplicity” (his employee
Ralph Rylance), but Read has found the title “that perhaps best fits
him: traveling salesman” (19, 135, 20, 145, 155).
Chapter 3 (19-44), “The Grave,” derives in part from Read’s “A New Blake Engraving: Gilchrist and the Cromek Connection,” Blake (1980) <BBS p. 390>; chapter 4 (45-86), “The Canterbury Pilgrims,” from his “The Rival Canterbury Pilgrims of Blake and Cromek: Herculean Figures in the Carpet,” Modern Philology (1988) <BBS p. 619> and “Thomas Stothard’s The Pilgrimage to Canterbury (1806): A Study in Promotion and Popular Taste,” Chaucer Illustrated: Five Hundred Years of The Canterbury Tales in Pictures, ed. William K. Finley and Joseph Rosenblum (2003) <Blake
(2004), under Stothard in Division II>; chapter 5 (87-106), “The
Chalcographic Society,” from his “The Context of Blake’s ‘Public
Address’: Cromek and the Chalcographic Society,” Philological Quarterly (1981) <BBS
p. 618>; chapter 6 (107-26), “Reliques of Burns,” from his
“Practicing ‘The Necessity of Purification’: Cromek, Roscoe, and Reliques of Burns,” Studies in Bibliography 35 (1982): 306-19; and chapter 7 (127-40), “Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song,” from his “Cromek, Cunningham, and Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song: A Case of Literary Duplicity,” Studies in Bibliography 40 (1987): 175-87.
The work was some time in gestation; it was described as “in the press” in BBS pp. 22, 30.
§Karen Junod, Review of English Studies
63 (April 2012): 337-39.
Discovery of advertisements for Blake’s Night Thoughts in the True Briton (31 March 1798) and the Times (9, 11 July 1798) referring to “the Second Part, which is in forwardness” (True Briton) or even “in great forwardness” (Times), though it was never published.
An essay built on [Leigh Hunt’s] “Account of a Familiar Spirit,” Reflector (1811), for which he discovered a reprint in the Analectic Magazine (1814).
Nelson Hilton (see Blake 45.3
“Orleans … breath’d on them” (the members of the National Assembly), and they respond as if mesmerized.
Mark Knight and Emma Mason. “Series Editors’ Preface.” viii.
Christopher Rowland. “Foreword.” xi.
It is “a study of ‘religion’ in a Blake text [“To my Friend Butts I write”] and in a Wordsworth text [an extract from The Excursion]” (1, 4).
A running commentary on Blake’s poem.
It is based on his thesis, “Kierkegaard, Creation Anxiety, and William Blake’s Early Illuminated Books” (2008) <Blake (2009)§>
Kathryn Freeman (see Blake 45.3
A careful account of Blake in a theological context.
“Blake deserves to be considered as one of the foremost English biblical
interpreters” (xii). The enthusiastic Moravian Church of Blake’s mother
is barely mentioned.
The reproductions include all the Job engravings (22) and Enoch drawings (5). There are design-by-design accounts of Job (chapters 2-3 [13-72]) and “The Enoch Drawings” (106-18).
Shirley Dent, Times Literary Supplement
13 May 2011: 26-27 (an “idiosyncratic take” which is “strangely unfulfilling”).
§G. A. Rosso, Romantic Circles
(29 July 2011).
Note also his “Ezekiel’s Merkavah in the Work of William Blake and Christian Art,” The Book of Ezekiel and Its Influence, ed. Henk de Jonge and Johannes Tromp (2007) <Blake (2008)§>
§New Statesman and Nation
“David Almond places Blake at the center of his novel Skellig” (115), particularly with respect to contraries.
With a chronological table (123-59) on the reception
of Blake in Japan from 1893 to 1929 based on Jugaku’s bibliography
(1929) and Sangu’s list (1929) with necessary amendments. (This is an
extremely impressive list of 515 publications in Japan, including
details of individual Blake poems and designs printed; many of these
publications do not appear in G. E. Bentley, Jr., with Keiko Aoyama, Blake Studies in Japan: A Bibliography of Works on William Blake Published in Japan 1893–1993  <Blake (1995)>).
Yanagi’s William Blake (1914) in Japanese was
sent by Yanagi with a manuscript inscription to Sampson (10 Aug. 1915)
and by him to Keynes in 1919; this copy is now in Cambridge University
“The Chimney Sweeper” was translated by Sangu as “The
Dust Sweeper” in Japanese because traditional Japanese houses did not
In the courtyard of the Tabard is a “waggon-office,” and
Immediately over this office, in the centre of the gallery, is a picture, said to be by Blake, and ‘well-painted,’*The
asterisk refers to a footnote, “*Gentleman’s Magazine, 1812.” See G. E.
Bentley, Jr., “Pictura Ignota: Blake’s Most Seen, Least Known
Painting,” Descant (2010) <Blake (2011)>. of the Canterbury Pilgrimage, though now so dirty or decayed that the subject itself is hardly discernible. (21)
§Adrián Muñoz, “La mística erótica de Blake,” Acta Poetica
30.1 (2009): 379-84 (in Spanish).
An attempt to read “The Chimney Sweeper” from Experience
by studying elements of its graphic design such as the use of various
punctuation marks and of upper and lower cases and by interpreting what
the graphic pattern means. (“Graphetics” seems to be the study of the
shape, size, and use of space in writing.)
A brief comment on Blake’s use of “visual and acoustic imageries” in “London.”
BBS gives the page numbers as 96-112;
“William Blake Makes a Minority Report” is 96-107 and “The Tail of the
Comet,” about Blake’s followers Linnell, Calvert, Palmer, and Richmond,
A comment on the happy harmony among God, men, and all
others in the world created by Blake, suggesting that harmony balances
innocence and experience in man’s soul.
“Blake’s tantalizing words become comprehensible when
they are heard. … Blake’s language and imagery started making sense: the
spoken words were transformational” (147).
A review of Tom Taylor’s biography of Haydon. “The
first great English designer, Blake, was slowly starving, known to few,
and still less appreciated than now” (46).
Stephens wrote briefly about Blake in 1867, 1872, and 1875 <BB #2753-54, 1331>, and Herbert Palmer gave Stephens Blake’s set of Aeschylus, Tragedies (1779) on 15 July 1890.
§Lydia Blanchard, Modern Fiction Studies
38.2 (summer 1992): 513-14.
A comparison of the differences in the notions of freedom in Zhuang Zi and Blake.
A comment on Blake’s ecological ethics in his nature
poems; he “is against industrialization,” “longs to return to nature,”
and “wishes for a harmonious co-existence shared by humans and animals.”
A comment on the use of wildflower imagery in Blake’s
“The Wild Flower’s Song” and Meng-Jia Chen’s “A Wild Flower,” suggesting
that the Chinese poet was influenced by the British poet.
§Alexander Gourlay, Studies in Romanticism
49.3 (fall 2010): 518-23.
[Mozart’s] wife Constance Weber ... was a very angel of
goodness to him. Seldom have artists been so singularly happy in their
choice; we are reminded of the perfect sympathies existing between
William Blake the painter and his beloved Kate—of John Flaxman the
sculptor ....” (2: 57-58).
An unnamed “schoolboy” “would hear Blake’s happy ‘Songs of Innocence,’ or the child piping in Sir Philip Sydney’s Arcadia, ‘as if he would never grow old!’” (2: 130).
According to the index in vol. 2, at 1: 336 is a
reference to “Blake, Flaxman, and Stothard,” which I have not seen.
Symington was born in 1825.
Sepehry is an Iranian poet.
An analysis of “The Tyger” and “The Lamb” in terms of “the eastern cognitive aesthetic perspective of heart-object monism.”
See *Anon., “Blake Remembered after a Century,” above.
About “A Song of Liberty” from Marriage.
Blake is on 434-38.
A comment on the “perfect symmetry” in “sound,” “structure,” and “imagery” of “The Tyger.”
In the context of a new spate of bank-note forgeries,
Tilloch’s proposal of 1797 for a forgery-proof bank note, “which was
recommended by almost every eminent artist in the Kingdom,” is
summarized, with a list of signatories, including Blake. All the
information here derives from Mark Crosby, “Blake and the Banknote
Crises of 1797, 1800, and 1818,” under University of Toronto Quarterly, below.
Over 300 letters from Bentley, Butlin, Erdman, Essick, Paley, Rosenwald, et al., plus miscellaneous papers, with index.
University of Toronto Quarterly
Volume 80, number 4 (fall 2011)
Special Issue: The William Blake Project, ed. Karen Mulhallen
The color illustrations in the online version are particularly important for the essays on Milton and Remember Me!
Karen Mulhallen. “The William Blake Project.” 779-85. (“The William Blake Project” consists of Blake in Our Time: Essays in Honour of G. E. Bentley Jr
ed. Mulhallen ; Blake in Our Time: A Symposium Celebrating the
Future of Blake Studies and the Legacy of G. E. Bentley Jr [28 Aug.
2010], orchestrated by Mulhallen; the symposium exhibition and the
catalogue called Remember Me! Blake in Our Time: A Keepsake Book in
Celebration of an Exhibition and Symposium on the Life and Art of
William Blake (1757-1827)
; and this issue of the University of Toronto Quarterly
*Morton D. Paley. “William Blake’s Milton/A Poem
and the Miltonic Matrix of 1791-1810.” 786-814. (Especially about pictorial representations of Milton and his daughters.)
Mark Crosby. “Blake and the Banknote Crises of 1797, 1800, and 1818.”
815-36. (A densely factual account of the bank-note crisis of 1797 with a
new testimonial document signed by Blake, plus unrecorded reuses of it
in the new crises of 1800 and 1818.)
Susanne Sklar. “‘In the Mouth of a True Orator’ (Jerusalem
’s Operating Instructions).” 837-57. (Persuasive arguments that Jerusalem
“has been designed to be read aloud” and that the bellicose, ruthless “Hand” in Jerusalem
is far more like the ruthless, bellicose General Charles Lennox, third
Duke of Richmond [1735–1806], who was a magistrate at Blake’s trial for
sedition  and who, according to Hayley, was “bitterly prejudiced
against Blake” [BR
(2) 183], than he is like the pacific, humanitarian Leigh Hunt, who has been traditionally associated by scholars with Hand.)Blake was attacked in the Examiner in 1808-09; he attacked the Examiner and the three Hunt brothers who conducted it in his Public Address (Notebook p. 52); there is a three-headed figure on Jerusalem pl. 50; three men with pointing hands on Jerusalem pl. 93 are associated with the accusers of Socrates; articles in the Examiner by the Hunts were often signed with a pointing hand.
Angus Whitehead. “‘humble but respectable’: Recovering the
Neighbourhood Surrounding William and Catherine Blake’s Last Residence,
No. 3 Fountain Court, Strand, c. 1820-27.” 858-79. (A dense record of
who lived in Fountain Court when the Blakes did [1821-27], their ages,
births, deaths, marriages, and, often, their occupations, though of
course there is scarcely anything of their social intercourse.)
*G. E. Bentley, Jr. “Remember Me!
Customs and Costumes of Blake’s Gift Book.” 880-92. (The 24 known copies of Remember Me!
differ from one another in “the pattern of binding, colour of
fore-edges, endpapers, and the decorated sleeve-case”; the “paucity of
sales may be related to the fact that the publisher John Poole had
little experience of book distribution. His speciality was as a maker of
Marble Paper and Fancy Pocket-Books, not in selling them” .)
Mary Lynn Johnson. “‘Catalogue of Some of Blake’s Pictures at “The
Salterns”’: Captain Butts as Exhibitor, Litigator, and Co-Heir (with His
Sister Blanche).” 893-917. (A prolifically factual account of the Butts
family and its Blake collections 1863-1905. The essay includes a
transcription of the Salterns catalogue  [914-15] and a “Butts
Family Genealogical Chart” of “Descendants of Blake’s Patrons, Thomas
& Elizabeth Butts” [916-17].)
*Garry Leonard. “‘Without Contraries There is No Progression’:
Cinematic Montage and the Relationship of Illustration to Text in
William Blake’s The [First] Book of Urizen
.” 918-34. (“I am
claiming” that Blake’s “strategy” in his illustrations “is comparable to
the cinematic technique of montage” .)
An interesting study but without reference to previous scholarship on the subject.
A comparison of the images, structure, and diction in the Canterbury Tales and “The Chimney Sweeper” from Innocence, saying that both authors “highlighted the value of feelings through the same image of ‘child.’”
An analysis of “the contrasting settings and
characters, images and symbols, and contrary tones and moods,” which are
“complementary and necessary to human existence.”
A biographical sketch of Blake, especially his London
habitats: “28 Broad St, Soho, 13 Hercules Buildings, Lambeth, No. 17
South Molton [Street], and Bunhill Fields” burying ground.
A brief analysis of several instances of dramatic irony in “The Chimney Sweeper” in Songs of Experience.
An attempt to explain the binary opposition shared by Roland Barthes and William Blake.
An attempt to apply Charles S. Peirce’s semiotic
theory of trichotomy (representamen, object, and interpretant) to the
understanding of Blake’s poem.
A brief discussion of how the innocence of “The Lamb”
turned into the experience of “The Tyger,” suggesting that “they combine
to symbolize the order of things in this world.”
Richly detailed and valuable.
On the nature of Blake’s literary creativity and how to write—and how Wilson writes.
§Michael Scrivener, English Studies in Canada
34.2-3 (June-Sept. 2008): 274-77.
An attempt to apply “Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of literary field” to the understanding of Blake’s poem.
A comment on the multiple significances of the poem conveyed by its ambiguous expressions.
A commentary on translations of “The Tyger” by Mo-Ruo
Guo and Zhi-Lin Bian, “the best translations in China,” pointing out
their weaknesses and concluding that Guo’s version is “spiritually true
to the original,” while Bian’s is “literally appealing.”
An analysis of the “prosody, image, and symbolism” in Blake’s poem.
A running commentary on the contrast between “The Sick
Rose” and “My Pretty Rose Tree,” suggesting that the former implies
“the dandy’s debauchery and the maiden’s misery” and the latter hints at
“how a dutiful husband resists temptation but is still misunderstood by
*Molly Anne Rothenberg (see Blake 45.3
A discussion of how Blake’s “linguistic ambiguity stimulates the reader’s interest and imagination” in “The Tyger.”
A comment on the similarities and dissimilarities between the two poems.
A comment on Blake’s use of contrast, repetition, and ambiguity in his poems.
A reading of the poem; Blake “manifests three binary
oppositions: life instinct versus death instinct, sick culture versus
free fighter, and the world of innocence versus the world of
experience.” “In this imbalance of the binary opposition, the former is
destined to be eroded, slaughtered, and replaced by the latter.”
The essay argues that “Innocence” is a word of
“multiple meanings” and that “the poet has a self-contradictory attitude
The essay attempts “to interpret the diverse meanings of the word ‘tiger’ from the perspectives of metaphor and cognition.”
A brief discussion of the importance of “a
translator’s understanding of the original work’s cultural background
A commentary on “Blake’s supernatural and magnificent imaginative world.”
A brief comment on the connection between Blake’s themes and the change of times.
Chapters 4-5 are about Blake and Emerson.
Division II: Blake’s Circle
Barry, James (1741–1806)
§Bennett, Susan, ed. Cultivating the Human Faculties: James Barry (1741–1806) and the Society of Arts
. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 2008. 162 pp.; ISBN: 9780934223966.
Susan Bennett. “Prologue.”
Helen Clifford. “Introduction.”
David G. C. Allan. “James Barry (1741–1806): A Biographical Outline.”
Anne Puetz. “The Society and the ‘Polite Arts’ 1754–1778: ‘best drawings,’ ‘High’ Art and Designs for the Manufactures.”
Martin Myrone. “Patriotism, Virtue, and the Problem of the Hero: The Society’s Promotion of High Art in the 1760s.”
Charlotte Grant. “Arts and Commerce Promoted: ‘female excellence’ and
the Society of Arts’ ‘patriotic and truly noble purposes.’”
Andrea MacKean. “Making a Place for Ornament: The Social Spaces of the Society of Arts.”
David G. C. Allan. “The Olympic Victors
: The Third Painting in Barry’s Series, The Progress of Human Knowledge and Culture
William L. Pressly. “Elysium
’s Elite: Barry’s Continuing Meditations on the Society of Arts Murals.”
John Manning. “‘This Slip of Copper’: Barry’s Engraved Detail of Queen Isabella, Las Casas and Magellan
William L. Pressly. “A Preparatory Drawing for Barry’s Glorious Sextumvirate
Rediscovered: The Search for the Seventh Man.”
William L. Pressly. “Barry’s Medal for the Society of Arts: A Celebration of the Three Kingdoms.”
David G. C. Allan. “Epilogue: Barry’s Death and Funeral.”
Butts, Elizabeth (c. 1770–1851)
Wife of Thomas, Blake’s patron
“Mrs. Elizabeth Butts, Grafton Street, Fitzroy Square
” subscribed to Guido Sorelli, Isabella degli Aldobrandi, Tragedia
(London: Presso l’autore, 18, Piccadilly; P. Rolandi, Dikes e Cooper, E. Miller, 1838) <Harvard>.
Flaxman, John (1755–1826)
Sculptor, intimate friend of Blake
2003 24 April–14 June
David Bindman, ed. John Flaxman, 1755–1826, Master of the Purest Line
. 2003. <Blake
The exhibition section of the catalogue includes:
“The Exhibition at the Strang Print Room University College, London: John Flaxman and the Process of Sculpture.” 44-50.
“The Exhibition at Sir John Soane’s Museum: John Flaxman: The Possibilities of Outline.” 51-60.
“Other Exhibits at University College, London: Display Cases, Flaxman
Gallery and Strang Print Room: The Flaxman Gallery from 1847 to the
Present Day.” 61-67.
2009 9 April–12 July
§Sylvie Tritz and Hans-Ulrich Kessler. John Flaxman und die Renaissance: ein Meister des Klassizismus im diolog mit Masaccio und Donatello
. John Flaxman and the Renaissance: A Master of Neo-Classicism in Dialogue with Masaccio and Donatello
. Berlin: Skulpturensammlung und Museum für Byzantinische Kunst, Staatliche Museen, 2009. In German and English. <Blake
(2010)§ (entry for exhibition only)>
I found no indication as to which designs are supposed to be Flaxman’s.
Discusses Flaxman’s engravers Blake, Neagle, Parker, and Piroli.
Fuseli, Henry (1741–1825)
Painter, friend of Blake
Andres, Sophia. “Narrative Challenges to Visual, Gendered Boundaries: Mary Shelley and Henry Fuseli.” Journal of Narrative Theory
31.3 (2001): 257-82.
Hayley, William (1745–1820)
Man of letters and patron
O’Sullivan, Margaret. “For Derby Museums and Art Gallery: [Nine]
Letters from Joseph Wright of Derby to William Hayley and William Long,
c. 1782-89. Bought for ₤15,000 with the aid of a grant of ₤1,500 from
the Friends of the National Libraries.” Friends of the National Libraries Annual Report for 2010
The letters, generously transcribed for me by Lucy
Salt, keeper of art, Derby Museums and Art Gallery, contain no reference
to Blake or to the copy of Poetical Sketches (S) which Flaxman gave Hayley on 26 April 1784.
Palmer, Samuel (1805–81)
Painter and disciple
See 1987 in Part IV.
Samuel Palmer 1805-1881 Visions of Landscape: Robin Tanner 1904-1988
. London: Fine Art Society, 2004. 4o
18 exhibits, 10 by Palmer.
Lisa Hilton, “Beneficent Light,” Times Literary Supplement
12 Aug. 2011: 30 (correction by Paul Goldman, “Samuel Palmer,” Times Literary Supplement
19 and 26 Aug. 2011: 6).
Parker, James (1757–1805)
Engraver, Blake’s partner in a print shop (1784–85)
Sir William Beechey painted a very
characteriſtic and ſpirited portrait of the preſent Chancellor of the
Exchequer, which … is now engraving in ſtroke, in a very capital ſtyle,
by Mr. James Parker, for Meſſrs. Boydell, and will be publiſhed in about
four or five weeks. (531)In G. E.
Bentley, Jr., “The Journeyman and the Genius: James Parker and His
Partner William Blake with a List of Parker’s Engravings,” Studies in Bibliography
49 (1996): 226, this is listed under 1800. The subject is the Right
Hon. Henry Addington, Viscount Sidmouth, prime minister 1801-04.
A section on the “Chalcographic Society, London” (177-78) includes a list of officers and committee members, including “James Parker, esq.”
Robert N. Essick has discovered the following engravings by Parker not recorded in Bentley:
“Fainasollis, Borbar & Fingal” (1809) <Bentley records only Boydell, 1783>
Akenside, Mark, Pleasures of Imagination (1806, 1810) <Bentley records only 1795, 1796, 1803>
Armstrong, John, The Art of Preserving Health (1796) <Bentley records only 1795>
Collins, William, Poetical Works (Sharpe, 1804) <Bentley records only 1792, 1802>
Falconer, William, The Shipwreck (1802, 1806, 1811) <Bentley records only 1796, 1800>
Lodge, Edmund, Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great Britain, 12 vols. (1823-35), 4 pls. <NB: Parker died in 1805>
Macneil, Hector, Poetical Works, 2 vols. (1802)
Pope, Alexander, An Essay on Man (1796)
Robertson, William, History of Scotland during the Reigns of Queen Mary and of King James VI, 3 vols. (1797)
Rogers, Samuel, The Pleasures of Memory (1803) <Bentley records only 1801, 1802, 1806>
Shakespeare, William, Plays, 12 vols. (1807)
Richard Golding (b. 1785) was
transferred as an apprentice in 1804 from [John] Pass [of 4 Chapel
Street, Pentonville, fl. 1799-1805] to James Parker (581).There is no appropriate Golding or Pass in Stationers’ Company Apprentices 1701-1800, ed. D. F. McKenzie (Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1978); details of Pass come from Ian Maxted, The London Book Trades 1775-1800: A Preliminary Checklist of Members (Folkestone: Dawson, 1977).
Stedman, John Gabriel (1744–97)
Soldier of fortune
§*Kim, Eun Ryung. “[A Travel Writing as Cultural Translation: Focusing on Stedman’s Narrative of a Five Years’ Expedition
].” [English Language and Literature Studies
] 51.4 (2009): 157-173. In Korean.
Stedman’s “text … is a representation itself of cultural hybridity of contact zone.”
A meticulous medical record.
Stothard, Thomas (1755–1834)
Painter, early friend of Blake
§Allen, Regulus. “‘The Sable Venus’ and Desire for the Undesirable.” Studies in English Literature
51.3 (summer 2011): 667-91.
About Stothard’s engraved design.
There are 5 prints after Stothard’s designs. The format is that of Harrison’s Novelist’s Magazine.
Tatham, Frederick (1805–78)
Sculptor and disciple
22 July 1878.
“July 13, after a short illness, at 45, Oak Village,
N.W., Frederick Tatham, aged 73, eldest son of the late C. Heathcote
“Can any reader supply the dates of marriage and
death, as also the parentage and maiden name of the wife of Frederick
Tatham …?” None did so in Notes and Queries.