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Two Pictorial Sources for Jerusalem 25

	And there was heard a great lamenting in Beulah: all the Regions
	Of Beulah were moved as the tender bowels are moved: & they said:
	Why did you take Vengeance O ye Sons of the mighty Albion?
	Planting these Oaken Groves: Erecting these Dragon Temples
	Injury the Lord heals but Vengeance cannot be healed:
	As the Sons of Albion have done to Luvah: so they have in him
	Done to the Divine Lord & Saviour. who suffers with those that suffer;
	For not one sparrow can suffer. & the whole Universe not suffer also,
	In all its Regions, & its Father & Saviour not pity and weep.
	But Vengeance is the destroyer of Grace & Repentance in the bosom
	Of the Injurer; in which the Divine Lamb is cruelly slain;
	Descend O Lamb of God & take away the imputation of Sin
	By the Creation of States & the deliverance of Individuals Evermore Amen
	Thus wept they in Beulah over the Four Regions of Albion
	But many doubted & despaird & imputed Sin & Righteousness
	To Individuals & not to States, and these Slept in Ulro.
1 Jerusalem 25.   From the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon. We are grateful to Mr. and Mrs. Mellon for permission to reproduce these pictures and to Mr. Willis Van Devanter for his assistance in obtaining them.
[View this object in the William Blake Archive]
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	It is easier to forgive an Enemy than to forgive a Friend:
	The man who permits you to injure him, deserves your vengeance:
	He also will recieve it: go Spectre! obey my most secret desire!
	Which thou knowest without my speaking: Go to these Fiends of Righteousness
	Tell them to obey their Humanities, & not pretend Holiness;
	When they are murderers: as far as my Hammer & Anvil permit
	Go, tell them that the Worship of God, is honouring his gifts
	In other men: & loving the greatest men best. each according
	To his Genius; which is the Holy Ghost in Man; there is no other
	God, than that God who is the intellectual fountain of Humanity:
	He who envies or calumniates: which is murder & cruelty,
	Murders the Holy-one! Go tell them this & overthrow their cup,
	Their bread, their altar-table, their incense & their oath:
	Their marriage & their baptism, their burial & consecration:
	I have tried to make friends by corporeal gifts but have only
	Made enemies: I never made friends but by spiritual gifts;
	By severe contentions of friendship & the burning fire of thought.
	He who would see the Divinity must see him in his Children
	One first, in friendship & love; then a Divine Family, & in the midst
	Jesus will appear; so he who wishes to see a Vision; a perfect Whole
	Must see it in its Minute Particulars; Organized & not as thou
	O Fiend of Righteousness pretendest; thine is a Disorganized
	And snowy cloud; brooder of tempests & destructive War
	You smile with pomp & rigor: you talk of benevolence & virtue!
	I act with benevolence & virtue & get murderd time after time:
	You accumulate Particulars, & murder by analyzing, that you
	May take the aggregate; & you call the aggregate Moral Law:
	And you call that Swelld & bloated Form; a Minute Particular,
	But General Forms have their vitality in Particulars: & every
	Particular is a Man; a Divine Member of the Divine Jesus.
	So Los cried at his Anvil in the horrible darkness weeping!
	The Spectre builded stupendous Works, taking the Starry Heavens
	Like to a curtain & folding them according to his will
	Repeating the Smaragdine Table of Hermes to draw Los down
	Into the Indefinite, refusing to believe without demonstration
	Los reads the Stars of Albion! the Spectre reads the Voids
	Between the Stars; among the arches of Albions Tomb sublime
	Rolling the Sea in rocky paths! forming Leviathan
	And Behemoth; the War by Sea enormous & the War
	By Land astounding: erecting pillars in the deepest Hell.
	To reach the heavenly arches; Los beheld undaunted furious
	His heavd Hammer; he swung it round & at one blow,
	In unpitying ruin driving down the pyramids of pride
	Smiting the Spectre on his Anvil & the integuments of his Eye
	And Ear unbinding in dire pain, with many blows,
	Of strict severity self-subduing, & with many tears labouring.
	Then he sent forth the Spectre all his pyramids were grains
	Of sand & his pillars: dust on the flys wing: & his starry
	Heavens; a moth of gold & silver mocking his anxious grasp
	Thus Los alterd his Spectre & every Ratio of his Reason
	He alterd time after time, with dire pain & many tears
	Till he had completely divided him into a separate space.
	Terrified Los sat to behold trembling & weeping & howling
	I care not whether a Man is Good or Evil; all that I care
	Is whether he is a Wise Man or a Fool, Go! put off Holiness
	And put on Intellect: or my thundrous Hammer shall drive thee
	To wrath which thou condemnest: till thou obey my voice
	So Los terrified cries; trembling & weeping & howling! Beholding
2 Jerusalem 91, bottom.   From the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon.
[View this object in the William Blake Archive]

I Morton Paley: The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus

“The difference between a bad Artist & a Good One Is: the Bad Artist Seems to Copy a Great deal The Good one Really Does Copy a Great deal.”1 1 Annotations to Reynold’s Discourses, The Complete Writings of William Blake, ed. Geoffrey Keynes (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1966), pp. 455-56. (This edition hereafter cited as K.) As Sir Anthony Blunt has shown, Blake really did copy a great deal,2 2 The Art of William Blake (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1959). though when he borrowed for one of his own works, the borrowing was seldom without some kind of transformation. Such is the case with the design on plate 25 of Jerusalem [fig. 1].

The central figure in this picture is Albion, as we know from the presence of the sun, moon, and stars in his limbs. (Two plates later we are told “ ‘But now the Starry Heavens are fled from the mighty limbs of Albion.’ ”—K 649). He is bound in a position strongly reminiscent of that of the central figure of The Blasphemer 3 3 Also known by the W. M. Rossetti title, The Stoning of Achan, but see Martin Butlin, William Blake / A Complete Catalogue of the Works in the Tate Gallery (London, 1971), p. 45. A similar Michelangelesque posture may be seen in J 91 [fig. 2]. in the Tate Gallery, but here the figure at the right is drawing something out of his body. This action has been variously interpreted as “winding a ‘clue’ of vegetation from his navel,” “drawing out the umbilical cord from his navel” and “disembowelment.”4 4 S. Foster Damon, William Blake: His Philosophy and Symbols (1924; rpt. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1958), p. 470; Joseph Wicksteed, William Blake’s Jerusalem (New York: The Beechurst Press, 1955), p. 155; Butlin, p. 45. Actually, it is all three, for to Blake the bowels and the umbilical cord are equally manifestations of those fibres of vegetation which play so large a thematic role in Blake’s later works. In this particular picture the same fibres that the figure on the right winds out of Albion’s body and into a ball stream down the plate on either side from the fingers of the central female figure. The identity of substance is more apparent in the Mellon copy than in the black-and-white copies, for Blake uses the same russet coloration for fibres of vegetation throughout (compare for example plate 57 [fig. 3], where the russet fibres stream from the fingers of the two female figures above and seem to entrap the one below). This winding of Albion’s “bowels of compassion” (56:34) into a ball is a demonic parody of the activity Blake urges on the reader in plate 77 [fig. 4] with its accompanying picture. Winding and unwinding, weaving and unweaving are indeed among the central motifs of Jerusalem [cf. fig. 5].

The meaning, then, is thoroughly Blakean. But the depiction of a figure whose bowels are being unwound is a rather unusual subject, and the existence of just such a figure in a painting by an artist whom Blake admired suggests that Blake was following his own advice in J 25. The painting is The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus by Nicolas Poussin. Blake praises Poussin several times in the Annotations to Reynolds (K 469, 477), and according to Raymond Lister Blake made a copy of Poussin’s The Giant Polypheme which was engraved by George Byfield c. 1820.5 5 William Blake: An Introduction to the Man and His Work (New York: Ungar, 1970), p. 165. Saint Erasmus was martyred by having his entrails drawn out and wound on a winch, and although Blake cannot have seen Poussin’s powerful rendering of this scene in Rome—or in Paris, to which it was removed during the Napoleonic period6 6 See Anthony Blunt, The Paintings of Nicholas Poussin / A Critical Catalogue (London, 1966), pp. 66-68. —he could easily have been familiar with the version by Joseph Marie Mitelli [fig. 6], an engraving listed as one of Mitelli’s “principal works” by Michael Bryan in 1816 (A Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and Engravers [London], II, 76). Blake has of course shifted Poussin’s supine suffering figure to a more Michelangelesque pose,7 7 C. H. Collins Baker suggests that the figure may derive from Flaxman; see “The Sources of Blake’s Pictorial Expression,” Huntington Library Quarterly, 4 (1940-41), 365. yet the drawing out and winding of the entrails remain the central conception of both pictures.8 8 Miss Deirdre Toomey points out that The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus was seen and remarked on by Henry Fuseli when he visited the Louvre in 1802. John Knowles summarizes Fuseli’s view of the painting as follows: The actual martyrdom of St. Erasmus is one of those subjects which ought not to be told to the eye—because it is equally loathsome and horrible; we can neither pity nor shudder; we are seized by qualms, and detest. Poussin and Pietro Testa are here more or less objects of aversion, and in proportion to the greater or less energy they exerted. This is the only picture of Poussin in which he has attempted to rival his Italian competitors on a scale of equal magnitude in figures of the size of life; and here he was no longer in his sphere; his drawing has no longer its usual precision of form, it is loose and Cortonesque; his colour on this scale has neither the breadth of fresco, nor the glow, finish, or impasto of oil.

The Life and Writings of Henry Fuseli (London, 1831), I, 270-71.

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	And the voices of Bath & Canterbury & York & Edinburgh. Cry
	Over the Plow of Nations in the strong hand of Albion thundering along
	Among the Fires of the Druid & the deep black rethundering Waters
	Of the Atlantic which poured in impetuous loud loud. louder & louder
	And the Great Voice of the Atlantic howled over the Druid Altars:
	Weeping over his Children in Stone-henge in Malden & Colchester.
	Round the Rocky Peak of Derbyshire London Stone & Rosamonds Bower
	What is a Wife & what is a Harlot? What is a Church? & What
	Is a Theatre? are they Two & not One? can they Exist Separate?
	Are not Religion & Politics the Same Thing? Brotherhood is Religion
	O Demonstrations of Reason Dividing Families in Cruelty & Pride!
	But Albion fled from the Divine Vision. with the Plow of Nations enflaming
	The Living Creatures maddend and Albion fell into the Furrow, and
	The Plow went over him & the Living was Plowed in among the Dead
	But his Spectre rose over the starry Plow. Albion fled beneath the Plow
	Till he came to the Rock of Ages. & he took his Seat upon the Rock.
	Wonder siezd all in Eternity! to behold the Divine Vision. open
	The Center into an Expanse, & the Center rolled out into an Expanse
3 Jerusalem 57.   From the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon
[View this object in the William Blake Archive]
	To the Christians.
	Devils are
	False Religions
	“Saul Saul”
	“Why persecutest thou me,
	I give you the end of a golden string,
	Only wind it into a ball:
	It will lead you in at Heavens gate,
	Built in Jerusalems wall.
	We are told to abstain from fleshly desires that we may lose no time from the
	Work of the Lord. Every moment lost, is a moment that cannot be redeemed
	every pleasure that intermingles with the duty of our station is a folly unredeemable
	& is planted like the seed of a wild flower among our wheat. All
	the tortures of repentance. are tortures of self-reproach on account of our leaving
	the Divine Harvest to the Enemy, the struggles of intanglement with incoherent
	roots. I know of no other Christianity and of no other Gospel than
	the liberty both of body & mind to exercise the Divine Arts of Imagination
	Imagination the real & eternal World of which this Vegetable Universe is
	but a faint shadow & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative
	Bodies, when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more. The Apostles knew
	of no other Gospel. What were all their spiritual gifts? What is the Divine
	Spirit? is the Holy Ghost any other than an Intellectual Fountain? What is
	the Harvest of the Gospel & its Labours? What is that Talent which it is a
	curse to hide? What are the Treasures of Heaven which we are to lay up for
	ourselves, are they any other than Mental Studies & Performances? What
	are all the Gifts of the Gospel. are they not all Mental Gifts? Is God a
	Spirit who must be worshipped in Spirit & in Truth and are not the Gifts
	of the Spirit Every-thing to Man? O ye Religious discountenance every
	one among you who shall pretend to despise Art & Science! I call upon
	you in the Name of Jesus! What is the Life of Man but Art & Science?
	is it Meat & Drink? is not the Body more than Raiment? What is Mortality
	but the things relating to the Body, which Dies? What is Immortality but the
	things relating to the Spirit, which Lives Eternally! What is the Joy of Heaven
	but Improvement in the things of the Spirit? What are the Pains of Hell
	but Ignorance, Bodily Lust, Idleness & devastation of the things of the Spirit
	Answer this to yourselves, & expel from among you those who pretend to despise
	the labours of Art & Science, which alone are the labours of the Gospel:
	Is not this plain & manifest to the thought? Can you think at all, &
	not pronounce heartily! That to Labour in Knowledge. is to Build up Jerusalem:
	and to Despise Knowledge, is to Despise Jerusalem & her Builders.
	And remember: He who despises & mocks a Mental Gift in another; calling
	it pride & selfishness & sin; mocks Jesus the giver of every Mental Gift.
	which always appear to the ignorance-loving Hypocrite, as Sins. but that
	which is a Sin in the sight of cruel Man. is not so in the sight of our kind God.
	Let every Christian as much as in him lies engage himself openly & publicly
	before all the World in some Mental pursuit for the Building up of Jerusalem
	I stood among my valleys of the south
	And saw a flame of fire, even as a Wheel
	Of fire surrounding all the heavens: it went
	From west to east against the current of
	Creation, and devourd all things in its loud
	Fury & thundering course round heaven & earth
	By it the Sun was rolld into an orb:
	By it the Moon faded into a globe.
	Travelling thro the night: for from its dire
	And restless fury, Man himself shrunk up
	Into a little root a fathom long.
	And I asked a Watcher & a Holy-One
	Its Name? he answerd. It is the Wheel of Religion
	I wept & said. Is this the law of Jesus
	This terrible devouring sword turning every way
	He answerd; Jesus died because he strove
	Against the current of this Wheel: its Name
	Is Caiaphas, the dark Preacher of Death
	Of sin, of sorrow, & of punishment;
	Opposing Nature! It is Natural Religion
	But Jesus is the bright Preacher of Life
	Creating Nature from this fiery Law,
	By self-denial & forgiveness of Sin:
	Go therefore, cast out devils in Christs name
	Heal thou the sick of spiritual disease
	Pity the evil. for thou art not sent
	To smite with terror & with punishments
	Those that are sick. like to the Pharisees
	Crucifying & encompasing sea & land
	For proselytes to tyranny & wrath.
	But to the Publicans & Harlots go!
	Teach them True Happiness. but let no curse
	Go forth out of thy mouth to blight their peace
	For Hell is opend to Heaven; thine eyes beheld
	The dungeons burst & the Prisoners set free.
	England! awake! awake! awake!
	Jerusalem thy Sister calls!
	Why wilt thou sleep the sleep of death?
	And close her from thy ancient walls.
	Thy hills & valleys felt her feet.
	Gently upon their bosoms move:
	Thy gates beheld sweet Zions ways;
	Then was a time of joy and love
	And now the time returns again:
	Our souls exult & Londons towers
	Recieve the Lamb of God to dwell
	In Englands green & pleasant bowers.
4 Jerusalem 77, top.   From the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon.
[View this object in the William Blake Archive]
	And formed into Four precious stones. for enterance from Beulah
	For the Veil of Vala which Albion cast into the Atlantic Deep
	To catch the Souls of the Dead: began to Vegetate & Petrify
	Around the Earth of Albion. among the Roots of his Tree
	This Los formed into the Gates & mighty Wall, between the Oak
	Of Weeping & the Palm of Suffering beneath Albions Tomb.
	Thus in process of time it became the beautiful Mundane Shell.
	The Habitation of the Spectres of the Dead & the Place
	Of Redemption & of awaking again into Eternity
	For Four Universes round the Mundane Egg remain Chaotic
	One to the North: Urthona: One to the South: Urizen;
	One to the East: Luvah: One to the West, Tharmas;
	They are the Four Zoas that stood around the Throne Divine
	Verulam: London: York & Edinburgh: their English names
	But when Luvah assumed the World of Urizen Southward
	And Albion was slain upon his Mountains & in his Tent.
	All fell towards the Center, sinking downwards in dire ruin
	In the South remains a burning Fire: in the East. a Void
	In the West, a World of raging Waters; in the North: solid Darkness
	Unfathomable without end: but in the midst of these
	Is Built eternally the sublime Universe of Los & Enitharmon
	And in the North Gate, in the West of the North. toward Beulah
	Cathedrons Looms are builded. and Los’s Furnaces in the South
	A wondrous golden Building immense with ornaments sublime
	Is bright Cathedrons golden Hall, its Courts Towers & Pinnacles
	And one Daughter of Los sat at the fiery Reel & another
	Sat at the shining Loom with her Sisters attending round
	Terrible their distress & their sorrow cannot be utterd
	And another Daughter of Los sat at the Spinning Wheel
	Endless their labour, with bitter food. void of sleep.
	Tho hungry they labour; they rouze themselves anxious
	Hour after hour labouring at the whirling Wheel
	Many Wheels & as many lovely Daughters sit weeping
	Yet the intoxicating delight that they take in their work
	Obliterates every other evil; none pities their tears
	Yet they regard not pity & they expect no one to pity
	For they labour for life & love, regardless of any one
	But the poor Spectres that they work for, always incessantly
	They are mockd, by every one that passes by. they regard not
	They labour; & when their Wheels are broken by scorn & malice
	They mend them sorrowing with many tears & afflictions,
	Other Daughters Weave on the Cushion & Pillow, Network fine
	That Rahab & Tirzah may exist & live & breathe & love
	Ah, that it could be as the Daughters of Beulah wish!
	Other Daughters of Los, labouring at Looms less fine
	Create the Silk-worm & the Spider & the Catterpiller
	To assist in their most grievous work of pity & compassion
	And others Create the wooly Lamb & the downy Fowl
	To assist in the work: the Lamb bleats! the Sea-fowl cries
	Men understand not the distress & the labour & sorrow
	That in the Interior Worlds is carried on in fear & trembling
	Weaving the shuddring fears & loves of Albions Families
	Thunderous rage the Spindles of iron. & the iron Distaff
	Maddens in the fury of their hands, Weaving in bitter tears
	The Veil of Goats-hair & Purple & Scarlet & fine twined Linen
5 Jerusalem 59, center.   From the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon.
[View this object in the William Blake Archive]
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II Deirdre Toomey: Le Tre Parche

The anonymous engraving after Il Rosso Fiorentino1 1 The Rosso original is lost. known as Le Tre Parche [fig. 7] is usually attributed to Rene Boyvin, a sixteenth century French engraver and designer.2 2 However Yves Metman argues that much of the work hitherto attributed to Boyvin must be assigned to another Fontainbleu engraver, Pierre Millan: this version of the Parche is among those reattributed. See Metman, “Pierre Millan; un Graveur inconnu de l’École de Fontainbleu”, Bibliothèque D’Humanisme et Renaissance (1941), pp. 202-21A [including a supplement of documents]. Boyvin was born in Angers in 1530, worked in Paris and died in Rome in 1598. About 226 prints can be attributed to him, mainly engraved after Il Rosso and Primaticcio. Boyvin engraved two versions of this subject; in the other, also after Il Rosso, the Fates are clothed. According to Robert-Dumesnil a bad copy of the engraving exists with the following inscription in the margin: “Dum terrae Iovis ante pedes fera pensa sorores devolvunt; cave ne tempus mane fluvat.”

The resemblance between this Boyvin print and plate 25 of Jerusalem [fig. 1] in general design and minute detail is striking enough to lead one to conclude that Blake had seen and studied it. The engraving is, and presumably was, extremely rare, and I can find no record of it in Cumberland’s Catalogue; it is possible that a copy was owned by Fuseli, who possessed an interesting collection of Mannerist prints. Two copies of this rare print were acquired by the British Museum in 1850 from the collection of a Mr. Bowerfield.

Blake’s debt to the Rosso design is immediately evident. It can be seen in his use of the unusual pyramidical composition of three female nudes; in the torso and outstretched arms of the central figure and the bundles of cord-like substance that she holds; in the relationship of her arms to the heads of the other two figures; and in the head, features, tear-stained face and hunched pose of the right-hand figure. Indeed the very theme of plate 25 can be seen to be derived from the Parche.

Blake alters the proportion from rectangle to square to accommodate[e] the extra figure. He discards the left-hand Fate for a more compositionally symmetrical adaptation of Michaelangelo’s Night. The central Fate is considerably foreshortened, her sprawling legs are removed and her arms are straightened.3 3 They come to resemble those of the floating female in the Victoria and Albert Allegorical Design with a River God. The right-hand Fate suffers a slight rearrangement of her legs and arms; her hunched pose remains remarkably unmodified. Blake enlarges the picture depth, at the same time concentrating the movement within the design. In the Rosso there is a characteristic tendency towards diffuseness; the strong triangle formed by the three bodies is broken by the outward thrust and gaze of all the figures. Blake’s modifications all tend towards making the design more concentrated, dramatic and energetic. The self-consciousness of the Fates disappears and their potential energy is harnessed by the introduction of the fourth figure and hence an action. In typical Mannerist fashion the diagonals in the Rosso bisect on the pudendum of the central Fate, which is thus the focal point of the design. In plate 25 this central figure is foreshortened and the focal point becomes Albion’s agonized chest. Blake also ignores the merely ornamental parts of the design; the “Testa Divina” head-dresses disappear and blocks of stone are substituted for the draperies, pedestal and basket of flowers.

Blake takes the spinning motif of Le Tre Parche a stage further both formally and iconographically. Instead of the symbolic thread, the females really wind “the thin-spun life,” Albion’s “tender bowels.” This winding of entrails can be seen to be taken from Poussin’s St. Erasmus [fig. 6]: two sources are thus admirably conflated in plate 25. The bundles of flax held by the central Fate also undergo a curious transformation, being enlarged into long willow-like roots. It is important to note that, in taking over and elaborating the Rosso spinning motif, Blake disrupts the process: in the former, the bundles of flax are being spun into thread, in the latter there is no visually logical connection between the “roots” and the entrails.4 4 However if we turn to the text connections can be made: the roots can be seen as Vala’s veil being thrown over Albion’s “deep wound of sin” by the leaning central figure. Blake’s interest in spinning and weaving can be seen elsewhere in Jerusalem, viz., plates 59 [fig. 5] and 91 [fig. 2]. The bands worn by two of the Fates and used as distaff-holders are rather surprisingly ignored by Blake: similar bands are to be seen more than once on Blake’s male figures, viz., Vala p. 60, and, more debatably, on female figures in Jerusalem. The most plausible of these is seen in plate 59, a spinning scene; the bands in plates 5, 8 and 24 are nearer to harnesses of some sort. The female band was a classical device, often used in the Renaissance and available to Blake in countless engravings. Blake’s source for the male band is probably Fuseli.

The sun, moon and stars seen on Albion’s body in this plate can be read as symbolic references to his microcosmic nature:

You have a tradition that Man anciently contain’d in his mighty limbs all things in Heaven & Earth: this you received from the Druids.
“But now the Starry Heavens are fled from the mighty limbs of Albion.” (J 27)
They can also be read, more simply, as primitive decorations, very similar to those seen on the bodies of the Ancient Britons in Speed’s Historie [fig. 8]. Here the ancient Britons are seen as “naked Heroes,” dwelling in “naked simplicity,” though Speed’s Britons are not Blake’s original Britons, “learned, studious, abstruse in thought and contemplation” but, as we see from the heads that they car begin page 189 | back to top
Nicholaus Pusin Pi.
                                Arnold: Van Westerhout, formis Romæ
                                Sc. Mitellus Del
6 Mitelli’s engraving of Poussin’s The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus.   Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.
7 Rene Boyvin’s [?] engraving of Le Tre Parche, after Il Rosso Fiorentino.   Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.
begin page 190 | back to top ry and trample upon, belong rather to the corrupt age “which began to turn allegoric and mental signification into corporeal command, whereby human sacrifice would have depopulated the earth.” Suns, moons and stars form part of their body-decoration, as do birds and beasts: “ . . . Man contain’d in his Limbs all Animals . . . ” (J 27).

Deirdre Toomey will discuss the two states of J 25 in Blake Newsletter 21 (Summer 1972). (Eds.)

8 “The Portraitures and paintings of the Ancient Britains,” from John Speed’s Historie of Great Britaine . . . from JULIUS CAESAR, to . . . KING JAMES.   “The Second Edition Revised, and enlarged with sundry descents of the Saxons Kings, Their Marriages and Armes” (London, 1623), Book V, Chap. 6, p. 39.

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